Blocks for Shoulders

80 something year old male came for reverse total shoulder replacement. He had severe COPD as well as an EF 20% with CHF. He had been appropriately optimized. Preoperatively, we performed an anterior approach suprascapular block (10ml, 0.25% bupi) combined with an infraclavicular block (20ml, 0.25% bupi). In retrospect, we could have used 5ml for suprascapular block and 15ml for infraclavicular block.

Supraclavicular block versus interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery: A meta-analysis of clinical control trials. International Journal of Surgery, Volume 45, September 2017, Pages 85-91.

  • Supraclavicular block could provide similar analgesic efficacy compared with interscalene block.
  • Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block was associated with a low incidence of hoarseness and Horner syndrome.

Interscalene versus supraclavicular plexus block for the prevention of postoperative pain after shoulder surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 36(6):p 427-435, June 2019

Comparison of Anterior Suprascapular, Supraclavicular, and Interscalene Nerve Block Approaches for Major Outpatient Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Randomized, Double-blind, Noninferiority Trial. Anesthesiology July 2018, Vol. 129, 47–57.

From Anesthesiology July 2018, Vol. 129, 47–57.

A Randomized Comparison Between Interscalene and Small-Volume Supraclavicular Blocks for Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine 2018;43:590-595.

A combination of infraclavicular and suprascapular nerve blocks for total shoulder arthroplasty: A case series. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2021; 65: 674– 680.

Suprascapular nerve block is a clinically attractive alternative to interscalene nerve block during arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research volume 16, Article number: 376 (2021).

Evolution of Anesthetic Techniques for Shoulder Surgery: A Narrative Review. Osteology 20222(1), 52-61.

YouTube: Anterior suprascapular nerve block and literature 11:43 for procedure

YouTube: Suprascapular and axillary nerve block

Anesthesia for Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Breast Reconstruction

What is a latissimus dorsi flap?

From MDAnderson.org

Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Breast Reconstruction. Cancer Control. 2018 Jan-Dec; 25(1): 1073274817744638.

A Retrospective Study of Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Immediate Breast Reconstruction. Front. Oncol., 04 November 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.598604

Anesthetic Techniques

Regional Anesthesia For Breast Reconstruction. [Updated 2022 Feb 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-.

Anaesthesia for breast surgery. BJA Education, 18(11): 342e348 (2018).

Anaesthesia for free flap breast reconstruction. BJA Education, Volume 16, Issue 5, May 2016, Pages 162–166.

Paravertebral Analgesia with Levobupivacaine Increases Postoperative Flap Tissue Oxygen Tension after Immediate Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction Compared with Intravenous Opioid Analgesia. Anesthesiology February 2004, Vol. 100, 375–380.

Treatment of Post-Latissimus Dorsi Flap Breast Reconstruction Pain With Continuous Paravertebral Nerve Blocks: A Retrospective Review. Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Oct; 6(5): e39476.

Paravertebral blocks and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols in breast reconstructive surgery: patient selection and perspectives. J Pain Res. 2018;11:1567-1581.

Comparison of local and regional anesthesia modalities in breast surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 2021 Sep;72:110274.

Efficacy of regional anesthesia techniques for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing major oncologic breast surgeries: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can J Anaesth. 2022 Apr;69(4):527-549.

Efficacy of erector spinae plane block for analgesia in breast surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2021 Mar;76(3):404-413.

Erector Spinae Plane Block Similar to Paravertebral Block for Perioperative Pain Control in Breast Surgery: A Meta-Analysis Study. Pain Physician. 2021 May;24(3):203-213.

Erector Spinae Plane Block for Mastectomy and Breast Flap Reconstructive Surgery: A Three Case Series. Open Journal of Anesthesiology
Vol.10 No.01(2020), Article ID:97889,8 pages.

Regional Anesthesia for AV fistula revision

Case info

Types of regional anesthesia for AV fistula

Regional anaesthesia practice for arteriovenous fistula formation surgery. Anaesthesia 2020, 75, 626–633.

Observational study of the efficacy of supraclavicular brachial plexus block for arteriovenous fistula creation. Indian J Anaesth. 2018 Aug; 62(8): 616–620.

NYSORA Ultrasound-guided Supraclavicular Block video

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular versus infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block in chronic renal failure patients undergoing arteriovenous fistula creation. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia. Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages 161-167.

SonoSite Ultrasound-guided Supraclavicular Block video

Practical Anesthesia Techniques ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block video

From Doctorlib.info

A brachial plexus block technique for upper arm AV Fistula. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 113, Issue eLetters Supplement, 29 December 2014.

Axillary Nerve Block for Upper Extremity Arteriovenous Fistula Creation. Proceedings of UCLA Healthcare. VOLUME 21 (2017).

Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block versus local infiltration anesthesia for arteriovenous fistula creation at the forearm for hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. Saudi J Anaesth. 2017 Jan-Mar; 11(1): 77–82.

Long-Term Functional Patency and Cost-Effectiveness of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation under Regional Anesthesia: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JASN August 2020, 31 (8) 1871-1882.

Comparison of regional and local anesthesia for arteriovenous fistula creation in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Anesthesiology volume 20, Article number: 219 (2020).

From Doctorlib.info

Is it ok to do regional blocks in sepsis patients?

Neuraxial Regional Anaesthesia in Patients with Active Infection and Sepsis: A Clinical Narrative Review. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2018 Feb; 46(1): 8–14.

Exparel

Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is a longer acting form of traditional bupivacaine that delivers the drug by means of a multivesicular liposomal system.

Exparel FDA drug sheet

  • Max Dose: 266 mg or 4mg/kg (6yo-17yo). Interscalene NB max dose (adults) =133mg
Exparel website: Field blocks
Exparel website: Interscalene NB

Exparel dosing company info: Pocket Dosing Guide , Billing Guide

Liposomal bupivacaine: a review of a new bupivacaine formulation. J Pain Res. 2012; 5: 257–264.

Emerging roles of liposomal bupivacaine in anesthesia practice. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Apr-Jun; 33(2): 151–156.

Liposomal bupivacaine peripheral nerve block for the management of postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 25;2016(8):CD011476.

Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration at the surgical site for the management of postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb; 2017(2): CD011419.

Novel Local Anesthetics in Clinical Practice: Pharmacologic Considerations and Potential Roles for the Future. Anesth Pain Med. 2022 Feb; 12(1): e123112.

Cardiac/Thoracic

The role of liposomal bupivacaine in thoracic surgery. J Thorac Dis. 2019 May; 11(Suppl 9): S1163–S1168.

Intercostal nerve blockade for thoracic surgery with liposomal bupivacaine: the devil is in the details. J Thorac Dis. 2019 May; 11(Suppl 9): S1202–S1205.

  • VATs: Dilute liposomal bupivacaine (266 mg, 20 cc) mixed with 20 cc injectable saline. We use two syringes to save time (refill syringe between injections).
  • For planned thoracotomy, we add 60 cc injectable saline for wider injection.
  • The efficacy of this strategy requires attention to specific details, such as timing and technique of injection, dilution with saline, and injection of multiple interspaces (typically interspaces 3–10 when technically possible).
  • Inject EXPAREL slowly and deeply (generally 1-2 mL per injection) into soft tissues using a moving needle technique (ie, inject while withdrawing the needle)
  • Infiltrate above and below the fascia and into the subcutaneous tissue
  • Aspirate frequently to minimize the risk of intravascular injection
  • Use a 25-gauge or larger-bore needle to maintain the structural integrity of the liposomal particles
  • Inject frequently in small areas (1-1.5 cm apart) to ensure overlapping analgesic coverage

Liposomal Bupivacaine Versus Bupivacaine for Intercostal Nerve Blocks in Thoracic Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis. Pain Physician. 2020 Jun;23(3):E251-E258.

Intercostal Blocks with Liposomal Bupivacaine in Thoracic Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2021 May;35(5):1404-1409.

Is liposomal bupivacaine superior to standard bupivacaine for pain control following minimally invasive thoracic surgery? Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery, Volume 31, Issue 2, August 2020, Pages 199–203, https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivaa083

Paravertebral Nerve Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine for Pain Control Following Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery and Thoracotomy. J Surg Res. 2020 Feb;246:19-25.

Rib fractures case report: ESP block


Evaluation of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol Including Parasternal Intercostal Nerve Block in Cardiac Surgery Requiring Sternotomy. Am Surg. 2021 Dec;87(10):1561-1564.

Ultrasound-guided Modified Parasternal Intercostal Nerve Block: Role of Preemptive Analgesic Adjunct for Mitigating Poststernotomy Pain. Anesth Essays Res. 2020 Apr-Jun; 14(2): 300–304.

Comparison of preincisional and postincisional parasternal intercostal block on postoperative pain in cardiac surgery. J Card Surg. 2020 Jul;35(7):1525-1530.

Ultrasound-guided parasternal intercostal nerve block for postoperative analgesia in mediastinal mass resection by median sternotomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Anesthesiol. 2021; 21: 98.

Pain Relief Following Sternotomy in Conventional Cardiac Surgery: A Review of Non Neuraxial Regional Nerve Blocks. Ann Card Anaesth. 2020 Apr-Jun; 23(2): 200–208.

A Novel Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Erector Spinae Plane Block for Pediatric Congenital Cardiac Surgery. Case Rep Anesthesiol. 2021; 2021: 5521136.

Breast/Gen Surg

Evaluating the Efficacy of Two Regional Pain Management Modalities in Autologous Breast Reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2022 Jan 19;10(1):e4010.

Perioperative Blocks for Decreasing Postoperative Narcotics in Breast Reconstruction. Anesth Pain Med. 2020 Oct; 10(5): e105686.

Opioid-sparing Strategies in Alloplastic Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2021 Nov 16;9(11):e3932.

Comparison of the efficacy of erector spinae plane block performed with different concentrations of bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia after mastectomy surgery: ramdomized, prospective, double blinded trial. BMC Anesthesiol. 2019; 19: 31.


Efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine versus bupivacaine in port site injections on postoperative pain within enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery program: a randomized clinical trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2019 Sep;15(9):1554-1562.

The use of extended release bupivacaine with transversus abdominis plane and subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum catheters: A retrospective analysis of a novel technique. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Jan-Mar; 36(1): 110–114.

Ortho

Pain Control and Functional Milestones in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Femoral Nerve Block. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017 Jan;475(1):110-117.

OB

Transversus Abdominis Plane Block With Liposomal Bupivacaine for Pain After Cesarean Delivery in a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg. 2020 Dec; 131(6): 1830–1839.

Intraperitoneal Chloroprocaine

20-something year old primip came today with preeclampsia and was deemed a c/s candidate for her 26 week baby. She was 5’8″, 165lb and had no prior issue with previous surgeries. She was started on magnesium preop. The mag was held intraoperatively and would resume postoperatively. Pt was in sitting position for her spinal, which was placed at L4-5. Good clear CSF return. 0.75% bupi dosed at 13.5 mg with intrathecal fentanyl 15mcg and intrathecal morphine 0.2mg. BP decreased from 150s to 130s, which was appropriate. Patient stated she had increased tingling and decreased mobility in her legs. All symptoms and signs appropriate with her spinal. Patient passed the Allis clamp test prior to incision. She was quite anxious: propofol was given IV for anxiolysis. Patient was adamant about breastfeeding/pumping for her baby. No complications with delivery. Uterus was externalized and patient was sensitive to pressure and tugging/manipulation. IV fenatnyl and IV morphine were given along with IV propofol. When uterus was internalized, patient felt more pressure that seemed unbearable. More IV pain meds were given. Suggestion was made for intraperitoneal chloroprocaine. Patient able to tolerate fascial closure as well as staple skin closure.

Intraperitoneal chloroprocaine

Chloroprocaine. StatPearls.

Intraperitoneal chloroprocaine is a useful adjunct to neuraxial block during cesarean delivery: a case series. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2018 Aug;35:33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2018.01.007. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Chloroprocaine Lavage to Improve Outcomes Related to Operative Cesarean Delivery (CLOR-PRO). Clinicaltrials.gov. 2018 ongoing.

Pain Control During Cesarean Delivery. Anesthesia Experts. Jan 2020.

From Essential Clinical Anesthesia: January 2012. Chapter 47

Failed epidural

Mechanisms and management of an incomplete epidural block for cesarean section. Anesthesiology Clinics. REVIEW ARTICLE| VOLUME 21, ISSUE 1, P39-57, MARCH 01, 2003

Fascia Iliaca blocks for TAVR under conscious sedation

Editorial: The use of Fascia iliaca Block with Minimal Conscious Sedation in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Advances in TAVR Anesthesia. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2020 May;21(5):602-603. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2020.03.017.

Local Anesthesia-Conscious Sedation: The Contemporary Gold Standard for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2018 Mar 26;11(6):579-580. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2018.01.238.

Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using Fascia Iliaca Block as an Alternative Approach to Conscious Sedation as Compared to General Anesthesia. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2020 May;21(5):594-601. doi: 10.1016/j.carrev.2019.08.080. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

**NYSORA U/S guided Fascia Iliaca nerve block**

From EMbeds.co.uk – FOAMed @ CHT-ED

TCT-808 Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using Fascia Iliaca Block as an Alternative Approach to Conscious Sedation as Compare to General Anesthesia: Findings From a Single Center. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Oct, 74 (13_Supplement) B792

Fascia Iliaca block for hip surgery

Why place regional blocks for surgery?

JNYSORA Volume 10 March 2009: Nerve Blocks For Postoperative Analgesia: Choices After Common Lower Extremity Procedures.

What is it?

NYSORA description

From Starship Child Health

NYSORA video describing the block

Academic Life in EM. Aug 21, 2019. Fascia iliaca nerve block: A hip fracture best-practice

EM St. John. Fascia Iliaca Nerve Block. .

From Starship Child Health

How to do it?

Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Plane block

MySigRA Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Plane block

From Highland EM Ultrasound

Literature says:

Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma: January 2020 – Volume 34 – Issue 1 – p 49-54. Fascia Iliaca Block Decreases Hip Fracture Postoperative Opioid Consumption: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

Eur J Emerg Med. 2016 Feb;23(1):12-8. Fascia iliaca compartment block for hip fractures: experience of integrating a new protocol across two hospital sites.

BJA VOLUME 120, ISSUE 6, P1368-1380, JUNE 01, 2018. Systematic review of the effects of fascia iliaca compartment block on hip fracture patients before operation.

Fascia iliaca block in the emergency department for hip fracture: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. BMC Geriatr 19, 180 (2019).

Anesthesiology September 2018, Vol. 129, 536–543. Preoperative Fascia Iliaca Block Does Not Improve Analgesia after Arthroscopic Hip Surgery, but Causes Quadriceps Muscles Weakness: A Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

J Surg, Volume 16:2, 2020. Peripheral Nerve Blocks in Hip Arthroscopy.

Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ).  2018 Jun;47(6). Outcomes After Peripheral Nerve Block in Hip Arthroscopy.

Dexmedetomidine

From DrugStoreNews

What is dexmedetomidine?

Current role of dexmedetomidine in clinical anesthesia and intensive care. Anesth Essays Res. 2011 Jul-Dec; 5(2): 128–133.

Dexmedetomidine: a novel sedative-analgesic agent. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 Jan; 14(1): 13–21.

Resources:

Perioperative Dexmedetomidine Improves Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery. Circulation. 2013;127:1576–1584.

Dexmedetomidine sedation reduces atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery compared to propofol: a randomized controlled trial. Critical Care volume 20, Article number: 298 (2016).

The effect of dexmedetomidine on outcomes of cardiac surgery in elderly patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016 Dec; 30(6): 1502–1508.

Prevalence of Delirium with Dexmedetomidine Compared with Morphine Based Therapy after Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial (DEXmedetomidine COmpared to Morphine-DEXCOM Study). Anesthesiology 11 2009, Vol.111, 1075-1084.

Effects of Perioperative Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Mortality and Morbidity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clinical Therapeutics/Volume 41, Number 1, 2019.

Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen vs Placebo Combined With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Delirium Among Older Patients Following Cardiac SurgeryThe DEXACET Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321(7):686-696.

Dexmedetomidine for reduction of atrial fibrillation and delirium after cardiac surgery (DECADE): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. VOLUME 396, ISSUE 10245, P177-185, JULY 18, 2020.

Role of dexmedetomidine infusion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The Cardiothoracic Surgeon volume 28, Article number: 4 (2020).

Dexmedetomidine as an Option for Opioid Refractory Pain in the Hospice Setting. J Palliat Med. 2019 Nov;22(11):1478-1481.


Dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in regional anesthesia

The comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine, fentanyl and esmolol on prevention of hemodynamic response to intubation

Regional Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgery

Gathering data for Cardiac ERAS program for our hospital as well as the SCA. This page will be continuously updated as I find more information.

Resources:



What I’m using these days:

  • August 2020: None as we do not have programmable intermittent bolus pumps for regional.

Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block

Indications and Technique

Figure 1. Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 8284363.
Figure 1. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2012; 2012: 731645.
Figure 5. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2012; 2012: 731645.
Figure 6. Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017: 8284363.

Pros & Cons

The Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks on Postoperative Pain in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum: November 2014 – Volume 57 – Issue 11 – p 1290-1297


How to perform a TAP block?

YouTube: U/S guided TAP block

YouTube: RAUKvideos U/S guided TAP block Fast forward to 0:39

YouTube: 3D How-To U/S Guided TAP block Fast forward to 1:00

YouTube: 2012 ISURA TAP block lecture Fast forward to 16:55 for summary.

YouTube: ASRA Society Fast forward to 0:55. Sound off.

YouTube: Pajunk TAP block


Current mix:

  • July 2020
    • 0.25% bupi + epi + 1 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine (roughly 30 ml per side)