Continuous Regional Anesthesia Catheters

We’re setting up continuous regional anesthesia catheters in our hospital. It hasn’t been easy, but I’ve learned a lot along the way.

From Essentials of Pain Medicine (Fourth Edition)
2018, Pages 135-140.e2

Update on Continuous peripheral nerve block techniques


The Cleveland Clinic Experience with Supraclavicular and Popliteal Ambulatory Nerve Catheters. The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 572507, 9 pages

  • Arrow, StimuCath continuous, nerve block procedural kit ASK 05060-cch 19 Ga, 60 cm catheter, insulated needle, 18 g 3.81 inch
  • The catheter was advanced 3–5 cm beyond the needle tip. During supraclavicular catheter insertion, the catheters were placed dorsolateral to the nerve plexus.
  • During popliteal catheter insertion, the catheters were placed next to the nerve with the needle coming from the lateral side of the thigh. The catheter was advanced 3–5 cm beyond the tip of the needle to end within the space between the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles medially and biceps femoris muscle laterally.
  • AmbIT pump (Summit Medical Production, Inc., Salt Lake city, UT, USA)
  • After catheter placement, an initial bolus dose of 20 mL ropivacaine 0.75% was administered. All patients were evaluated for sensory and motor block prior to surgery. Before discharge, the catheters were connected to AmbIT pumps infusing ropivacaine 0.2% with an 8 mL/hour basal rate and a 12 mL demand dose once per hour.
  • On the fifth day, patients were instructed to stop the infusion for 6 hours and then remove the catheter if their pain scores were less than 5 and well tolerated by the patients. If pain was more than or equal to 5 we asked patients to restart their infusions and we did the same every day until the catheter was removed.
  • The results of study demonstrate that the prolonged use of ambulatory catheters for a period up to 5 days did not lead to an increased incidence of complications as compared to other studies. Main complications were minor infections and pharmacological symptoms, which resolved with catheter removal and without the need for additional medical intervention.

Case Report: Continuous Erector Spinae Plane Catheter for Analgesia After Infant Thoracotomy. A&A Practice: November 1, 2018 – Volume 11 – Issue 9 – p 250–252


Erector Spinae Plane Block Catheter Insertion under Ultrasound Guidance for Thoracic Surgery: Case Series of Three Patients. Eurasian J Med. 2018 Oct; 50(3): 204–206.

  • epidural catheter (Perifix® Complete Set, B-Braun, Germany)
  • LA solution (a 1:1:1 mixture of 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 2% lidocaine, and 0.9% saline)
  • Block placed about 3 cm lateral to T spine
  • Rescue dose of LA mixture (15 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine and 15 mL of 0.9% saline) was injected through the catheter.
  • In addition, we used a 30 ml volume of LA, and we believe that plane blocks, such as ESP, need more volume, and that these blocks are volume dependent. 

Thoracic surgery: PVB, SAPB, TEpi, ESP block, Precedex

Paravertebral Catheter Use for Postoperative Pain Control in Patients After Lung Transplant Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study.  JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 142–146.

To place the PV catheter at the T4-5 level, the authors used an in-plane transverse technique under ultrasound guidance, with the probe in a transverse orientation. After identifying the anatomic landmarks on ultrasound, a 17-gauge Tuohy needle was advanced in a lateral to medial direction, until the tip was beneath the transverse process. For all recipients in the study, the authors further confirmed correct PV catheter placement with real-time infusion of a local anesthetic (1-3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000); they were able to visualize on ultrasound the spread from the tip of the catheter.

Once it was confirmed that the tip remained in position, the PV catheter was secured with skin glue (Dermabond®, Ethicon, Inc.; Somerville, NJ). Next, at the PV catheter insertion site, the authors placed an occlusive dressing on a chlorhexidine-impregnated sponge (BioPatch®, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, a division of Ethicon, Inc.; Somerville, NJ). The PV catheter was connected to an elastomeric pump (ON-Q®, Halyard Health, Alpharetta, GA), an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine was started at a rate of 0.2 to 0.25 mL/kg/h; the maximum dose was 7 mL/h per side in bilateral lung transplant recipients and 14 mL/h in unilateral single-lung transplant recipients.

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From NYSORA


Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Anterior Plane Block Versus Thoracic Epidural Analgesia for Thoracotomy Pain. JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 152–158.

Under sterile conditions and while patients still were in the lateral position with the diseased side up, a linear ultrasound transducer (10-12 MHz) was placed in a sagittal plane over the midclavicular region of the thoracic cage. Then the ribs were counted down until the fifth rib was identified in the midaxillary line (Fig 1).18 The following muscles were identified overlying the fifth rib: the latissimus dorsi (superficial and posterior), teres major (superior), and serratus muscles (deep and inferior). The needle (a 22-gauge, 50-mm Touhy needle) was introduced in plane with respect to the ultrasound probe, targeting the plane superficial to the serratus anterior muscle (Fig 2). Under continuous ultrasound guidance, 30 mL of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected, and then a catheter was threaded. A continuous infusion of 5 mL/hour of 0.125% levobupivacaine then was started through the catheter.

Figure-17-Nagdev-2017-ACEP-Now-Ultrasound-Guided-Serratus-Anterior-Plane-Block-Can-Help-Avoid-Opioid-Use-for-Patients-with-Rib-Fractures-
From http://painandpsa.org/rnb/


Erector Spinae Plane Block


Effect of Continuous Paravertebral Dexmedetomidine Administration on Intraoperative Anesthetic Drug Requirement and Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome After Thoracotomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 159–165.

Adjuvants to prolong regional anesthesia

Erector Spinae Plane Block

After speaking to a colleague of mine regarding regional anesthesia for thoracotomy and mastectomy, I am reading up on Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) block.

 

Indications:

 

 

Other regional blocks

Continuous ESP block catheter (my current regimen and what I’m able to get at my institution):

  • Braun Periflex catheter through 17g epidural needle
  • Cranial-to-caudal approach @ T5 (mastectomy, vats, rib fractures)
  • 20ml 0.25% bupi + epi prior to catheter
  • Catheter 5cm in space
  • 5 ml 0.25% bupi + epi after catheter placed
  • Mix: 0.125% bupi + fentanyl @ 10 ml/hr
  • If PCEA available, bolus 15ml every 3 hours; continuous as mix above.