Thoracic surgery: PVB, SAPB, TEpi, ESP block, Precedex

Paravertebral Catheter Use for Postoperative Pain Control in Patients After Lung Transplant Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study.  JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 142–146.

To place the PV catheter at the T4-5 level, the authors used an in-plane transverse technique under ultrasound guidance, with the probe in a transverse orientation. After identifying the anatomic landmarks on ultrasound, a 17-gauge Tuohy needle was advanced in a lateral to medial direction, until the tip was beneath the transverse process. For all recipients in the study, the authors further confirmed correct PV catheter placement with real-time infusion of a local anesthetic (1-3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000); they were able to visualize on ultrasound the spread from the tip of the catheter.

Once it was confirmed that the tip remained in position, the PV catheter was secured with skin glue (Dermabond®, Ethicon, Inc.; Somerville, NJ). Next, at the PV catheter insertion site, the authors placed an occlusive dressing on a chlorhexidine-impregnated sponge (BioPatch®, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, a division of Ethicon, Inc.; Somerville, NJ). The PV catheter was connected to an elastomeric pump (ON-Q®, Halyard Health, Alpharetta, GA), an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine was started at a rate of 0.2 to 0.25 mL/kg/h; the maximum dose was 7 mL/h per side in bilateral lung transplant recipients and 14 mL/h in unilateral single-lung transplant recipients.

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From NYSORA

Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Anterior Plane Block Versus Thoracic Epidural Analgesia for Thoracotomy Pain. JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 152–158.

Under sterile conditions and while patients still were in the lateral position with the diseased side up, a linear ultrasound transducer (10-12 MHz) was placed in a sagittal plane over the midclavicular region of the thoracic cage. Then the ribs were counted down until the fifth rib was identified in the midaxillary line (Fig 1).18 The following muscles were identified overlying the fifth rib: the latissimus dorsi (superficial and posterior), teres major (superior), and serratus muscles (deep and inferior). The needle (a 22-gauge, 50-mm Touhy needle) was introduced in plane with respect to the ultrasound probe, targeting the plane superficial to the serratus anterior muscle (Fig 2). Under continuous ultrasound guidance, 30 mL of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected, and then a catheter was threaded. A continuous infusion of 5 mL/hour of 0.125% levobupivacaine then was started through the catheter.

Figure-17-Nagdev-2017-ACEP-Now-Ultrasound-Guided-Serratus-Anterior-Plane-Block-Can-Help-Avoid-Opioid-Use-for-Patients-with-Rib-Fractures-
From http://painandpsa.org/rnb/

Erector Spinae Plane Block


Effect of Continuous Paravertebral Dexmedetomidine Administration on Intraoperative Anesthetic Drug Requirement and Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome After Thoracotomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JCVA February 2017. Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 159–165.

Adjuvants to prolong regional anesthesia

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Adjuvants to prolong regional anesthesia

For my single shot blocks, I’m always looking for ways to prolong my regional anesthetic effect.  For awhile, Exparel was the most talked about drug to have a 72 hour blockade.  We don’t have this medication available to us at the hospital.  Therefore, it’s time to get creative and hit the literature to see what has worked for prolonging our blocks.

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Prolonging blockade with adjuvants:

 

  • Facilitatory effects of perineural dexmedetomidine on neuraxial and peripheral nerve block: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Anaesthesia 110 (6): 915–25 (2013).
    • Sensory block duration was prolonged by 150 min [95% confidence interval (CI): 96, 205, P,0.00001] with intrathecal dexmedetomidine. Perineural dexmedetomidine used in brachial plexus (BP) block may prolong the mean duration of sensory block by 284 min (95% CI: 1, 566, P¼0.05), but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Motor block duration and time to first analgesic request were prolonged for both intrathecal and BP block. Dexmedetomidine produced reversible bradycardia in 7% of BP block patients, but no effect on the incidence of hypotension. No patients experienced respiratory depression.
    • Considerable differences existed in the doses of perineural dexmedetomidine; doses varied between 3, 5, 10, or 15 mcg for the intrathecal route, and 30, 100, 0.75, 1 mcg/kg for the peripheral route.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Other useful links:

 

ERAS for Cardiac Surgery

ERAS for cardiac surgery. #eras #pain #multimodal #opioids #surgery #cardiac #perfusion #perfusionist

I have been utilizing ERAS in general surgery, OB, and ortho cases.  Diving into one of my more tricky populations, I opted to see what ERAS practices are out there for cardiac surgery.  Careful what you look for my friends.  There’s actually a good amount of information out there!

ACCRAC podcast: ERAS for Cardiac Surgery

ERAS Cardiac Consensus Abstract – April 2018

Enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Volume 54, Issue 3, 1 September 2018, Pages 491–497, https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezy100

** Audio PPT ** American Association for Thoracic Surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery. April 2018

The impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol compliance on morbidity from resection for primary lung cancer.  The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. April 2018Volume 155, Issue 4, Pages 1843–1852. 

Enhanced Recovery for Cardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 Jan 31. pii: S1053-0770(18)30049-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2018.01.045

ERAS
From Journal of Anesthesiology

Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery Society

My blog posts:

Key Points

  • Level 1 (Class of recommendation=Strong Benefit):
    • Tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid should be administered for on-pump cardiac surgical procedures to reduce blood loss.
    • Perioperative glycemic control is recommended (BS 70-180; [110-150]).
    • A care bundle of best practices should be performed to reduce surgical site infection.
    • Goal-directed therapy should be performed to reduce postoperative complications.
    • A multimodal, opioid-sparing, pain management plan is recommended postoperatively
    • Persistent hypothermia (T<35o C) after CPB should be avoided in the early postoperative period. Additionally, hyperthermia (T>38oC) should be avoided in the early postoperative period.
    • Active maintenance of chest tube patency is effective at preventing retained blood syndrome.
    • Post-operative systematic delirium screening is recommended at least once per nursing shift.
    • An ICU liberation bundle should be implemented including delirium screening, appropriate sedation and early mobilization.
    • Screening and treatment for excessive alcohol and cigarette smoking should be performed preoperatively when feasible.
  • Level IIa (Class of recommendation=Moderate Benefit)
    • Biomarkers can be beneficial in identifying patients at risk for acute kidney injury.
    • Rigid sternal fixation can be useful to reduce mediastinal wound complications.
    • Prehabilitation is beneficial for patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with multiple comorbidities or significant deconditioning.
    • Insulin infusion is reasonable to be performed to treat hyperglycemia in all patients in the perioperative period.
    • Early extubation strategies after surgery are reasonable to be employed.
    • Patient engagement through online or application-based systems to promote education, compliance, and patient reported outcomes can be useful.
    • Chemical thromboprophylaxis can be beneficial following cardiac surgery.
    • Preoperative assessment of hemoglobin A1c and albumin is reasonable to be performed.
    • Correction of nutritional deficiency, when feasible, can be beneficial.
  • Level IIb (Class of recommendation=Weak Benefit)
    • A clear liquid diet may be considered to be continued up until 4 hours before general anesthesia.
    • Carbohydrate loading may be considered before surgery.

 

ERAS for cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia

Erector Spinae Plane Block

After speaking to a colleague of mine regarding regional anesthesia for thoracotomy and mastectomy, I am reading up on Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) block.

 

Indications:

 

 

Other regional blocks

Continuous ESP block catheter (my current regimen and what I’m able to get at my institution):

  • Braun Periflex catheter through 17g epidural needle
  • Cranial-to-caudal approach @ T5 (mastectomy, vats, rib fractures)
  • 20ml 0.25% bupi + epi prior to catheter
  • Catheter 5cm in space
  • 5 ml 0.25% bupi + epi after catheter placed
  • Mix: 0.125% bupi + fentanyl @ 10 ml/hr
  • If PCEA available, bolus 15ml every 3 hours; continuous as mix above.

Ketamine for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia

I’m always looking for ways to improve myself. Lately, I’m looking at various clinical elements of my practice and select certain endpoints that will better my practice of medicine.

This time, I’ve focused on cutting back on opioids intraoperatively for pain. I’m looking specifically at ketamine, an old drug with multiple benefits (and some downsides). Not only does ketamine help with intraoperative pain, but it also helps with postoperative pain. I’d like to incorporate some type of ERAS model for all of my patients and surgeries.

ketamine_hydrochloride_050

Ketamine: (different doses I’ve seen in the literature below)

• Induction: 0.2-0.5 mg/kg

• Infusion: 0.1mg/kg/hr before incision

◦ 2mcg/kg/hr x 24hr (spine)

◦ 0.1-0.15mg/kg/hr x 24-72hrs (UW)

◦ 2mcg/kg/min

◦ 2-8mcg/kg/min

What I’m using nowadays:

  • Oct 2017:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction bolus=0.5mg/kg; infusion=0.1mg/kg/hr and stopping when last stitch placed. Patients seem to require less postoperative narcotics. Looking at time to extubation to see if this is improved.  Time to extubation seems the same as my prior non-ketamine patients because RT and RNs follow a weaning protocol.  Patients are more comfortable and require less pain medication.
  • Dec 2018:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction bolus = 0.5 mg/kg + another 0.5 mg/kg bolus when re-warming; infusion 0.2 mg/kg/hr stopping when last dressing placed.

 

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Is intravenous ketamine effective for postoperative pain management in adults? Medwave2017;17(Suppl2):e6952 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2017.6952

Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesth Essays Res. 2014 Sep-Dec; 8(3): 283–290.

Effect of intraoperative infusion of low-dose ketamine on management of postoperative analgesia. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015 Jul-Dec; 6(2): 378–382.

Ketamine for Perioperative Pain Management. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:211–20.

CLINICAL GUIDELINE FOR USE OF KETAMINE AS AN ADJUVANT ANALGESIC FOR USE BY ANAESTHETISTS ONLY. NHS Royal Cornwall Guidelines June 2015.

Ketamine as an Adjunct to Postoperative Pain Management in Opioid Tolerant Patients After Spinal Fusions: A Prospective Randomized Trial. HSS Journal: Volume 4, Number 1.

The Use of Intravenous Infusion or Single Dose of Low-Dose Ketamine for Postoperative Analgesia: A Review of the Current Literature. Pain Medicine Volume 16, Issue 2, pages 383–403, February 2015.

Role of Ketamine in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Narrative Review. BioMed Research International. Volume 2015; Article ID 749837, 10 pages.

Ketamine in Pain Management. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 19 (2013) 396–402.

Ketamine for the Management of Acute Pain and Agitation in the ICU: Future, Fiction or Just another Drug-Induced Hallucination? Ann Pharmacol Pharm. 2017; 2(11): 1059.

Intraoperative ketamine for prevention of postoperative delirium or pain after major surgery in older adults: an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2017; 390: 267–75.

A comparison between intravenous lidocaine and ketamine on acute and chronic pain after open nephrectomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Saudi J Anaesth 2017;11:177-84.

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Acute and Chronic Post-Thoracotomy Pain, modes of treatment

Another project I’m working on is the effect of lidocaine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative pain.


***UPDATE July 8, 2018 ***

AnesthesiologyNews: July 2018: New Consensus Guidelines Issued for Use of IV Ketamine for Acute Pain.

  • Question 1: Which patients and acute pain conditions should be considered for ketamine treatment?
    Conclusion: For patients undergoing painful surgery, subanesthetic ketamine infusions should be considered. Ketamine also may be warranted for opioid-dependent or opioid-tolerant patients undergoing surgery, or with acute or chronic sickle cell pain. For patients with sleep apnea, ketamine may be appropriate as an adjunct to limit opioid use.
  • Question 2: What dose range is considered subanesthetic, and does the evidence support dosing in this range for acute pain?
    Conclusion: Ketamine bolus doses should not exceed 0.35 mg/kg, whereas infusions for acute pain generally should not exceed 1 mg/kg per hour in settings lacking intensive monitoring. However, dosing outside this range may be indicated because of an individual patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors and other considerations, such as prior ketamine exposure. However, ketamine’s adverse effects prevent some patients from tolerating higher doses for acute pain; therefore, unlike for chronic pain management, lower doses in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg per hour may be necessary to achieve an acceptable balance between analgesia and adverse events.
  • Question 3: What is the evidence to support ketamine infusions as an adjunct to opioids and other analgesic therapies for perioperative analgesia?
    Conclusion: There is moderate evidence to support using subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus doses up to 0.35 mg/kg and infusions up to 1 mg/kg per hour as adjuncts to opioids for perioperative analgesia.
  • Question 4: What are the contraindications to ketamine infusions in the setting of acute pain management, and do they differ from chronic pain settings?
    Conclusion: Patients with poorly controlled cardiovascular disease or who are pregnant or have active psychosis should avoid ketamine. Similarly, for hepatic dysfunction, patients with severe disease, such as cirrhosis, should not take the medicine; however, ketamine can be given with caution for moderate disease by monitoring liver function tests before infusion and during infusions in surveillance of elevations. On the other hand, ketamine should not be given to patients with elevated intracranial pressure or elevated intraocular pressure.
  • Question 5: What is the evidence to support nonparenteral ketamine for acute pain management?
    Conclusion: Intranasal ketamine is beneficial for acute pain management by achieving effective analgesia and amnesia/procedural sedation. Patients for whom IV access is difficult and in children undergoing procedures are likely candidates. But for oral ketamine, the evidence is less convincing, although anecdotal reports suggest this route may provide short-term advantages in some patients with acute pain.
  • Question 6: Does any evidence support IV ketamine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for acute pain?
    Conclusion: The evidence is limited to support IV ketamine PCA as the sole analgesic for acute or periprocedural pain. There is moderate evidence, however, to support the addition of ketamine to an opioid-based IV PCA regimen for acute and perioperative pain therapy.

New guidelines for the use of IV ketamine infusions for acute pain management have been published as a special article in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2018;43[5]:456-466).

The guidelines were jointly developed by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA), the American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.


Update Nov, 30, 2018

Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Acute Pain Management From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: July 2018 – Volume 43 – Issue 5 – p 456–466

Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Chronic Pain From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.  Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: July 2018 – Volume 43 – Issue 5 – p 521–546

Lidocaine infusions for pain

From Anesthesiology 2017

BJA Educ, April 2016. Intravenous lidocaine for acute pain: an evidence-based clinical update

Lidocaine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management – Vanderbilt

Cocharane Library, July 2015. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

Perioperative Use of Intravenous Lidocaine. Anesthesiology 4 2017, Vol.126, 729-737.

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Open Access Journals, Jan 2017. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain.

Anesthesiology, April 2017. Perioperative use of IV lidocaine.

From Jama Surgery 2017

Here’s what I’m currently using:

  • October 2017
    • Lidocaine bolus: 1.5mg/kg on induction
    • Infusion: 2-3mg/kg/hr after induction to end surgery
    • If cardiac on CPB: bolus 1.5mg/kg on induction; Infusion: 4 mg/min x 48 hrs or discharge from ICU; On CPB bolus 4 mg/kg.

I’m also currently working on ERAS protocols for my practice as well as the use of ketamine infusions for intraoperative and postoperative pain and recovery.

Lidocaine infusions for pain

From Anesthesiology 2017

BJA Educ, April 2016. Intravenous lidocaine for acute pain: an evidence-based clinical update

Lidocaine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management – Vanderbilt

Cocharane Library, July 2015. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

Perioperative Use of Intravenous Lidocaine. Anesthesiology 4 2017, Vol.126, 729-737.

30tt01

Open Access Journals, Jan 2017. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain.

Anesthesiology, April 2017. Perioperative use of IV lidocaine.

From Jama Surgery 2017

 

Here’s what I’m currently using:

  • October 2017
    • Lidocaine bolus: 1.5mg/kg on induction
    • Infusion: 2-3mg/kg/hr after induction to end surgery
    • If cardiac on CPB: bolus 1.5mg/kg on induction; Infusion: 4 mg/min x 48 hrs or discharge from ICU; On CPB bolus 4 mg/kg.

I’m also currently working on ERAS protocols for my practice as well as the use of ketamine infusions for intraoperative and postoperative pain and recovery.