Grew up in a small Texas town. Heavily involved in extracurricular activities: piano, violin, dance (ballet/jazz/tap), tennis, horseback riding (english/western), taekwondo, basketball, soccer, volleyball, percussion, drumline, orchestra, band, mascot, pageants. I had the typical Tiger Mom upbringing. Went to college, medical school, residency, and fellowship. Amidst the ups and downs of life, allow me to share with you my journey...as an "ordinary" person who happens to be an MD.
We are currently looking at ideas to help our school system move to year round school. The reason for the push is that we have 2 parents working in the family. The benefits are highlighted that kids possibly retain their learned topics better. I definitely think it would help with summer planning as well as enable us the ability to take OFF season vacationing throughout the year. I think kids could be better focused for a shorter time period. I think it promotes a sense of routine that may be better tolerated by kids as well as families.
All people with type 2 diabetes should be offered access to ongoing DSMES programs.
Providers and health care systems should prioritize the delivery of person-centered care.
Optimizing medication adherence should be specifically considered when selecting glucose-lowering medications.
MNT focused on identifying healthy dietary habits that are feasible and sustainable is recommended in support of reaching metabolic and weight goals.
Physical activity improves glycemic control and should be an essential component of type 2 diabetes management.
Adults with type 2 diabetes should engage in physical activity regularly (>150 min/week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic activity) and be encouraged to reduce sedentary time and break up sitting time with frequent activity breaks.
Aerobic activity should be supplemented with two to three resistance, flexibility, and/or balance training sessions/week. Balance training sessions are particularly encouraged for older individuals or those with limited mobility/poor physical function.
Metabolic surgery should be considered as a treatment option in adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate surgical candidates with a BMI ≥40.0 kg/m2 (BMI ≥37.5 kg/m2 in people of Asian ancestry) or a BMI of 35.0–39.9 kg/m2 (32.5–37.4 kg/m2 in people of Asian ancestry) who do not achieve durable weight loss and improvement in comorbidities (including hyperglycemia) with nonsurgical methods.
In people with established CVD, a GLP-1 RA with proven benefit should be used to reduce MACE, or an SGLT2i with proven benefit should be used to reduce MACE and HF and improve kidney outcomes.
In people with CKD and an eGFR ≥20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and a UACR >3.0 mg/mmol (>30 mg/g), an SGLT2i with proven benefit should be initiated to reduce MACE and HF and improve kidney outcomes. Indications and eGFR thresholds may vary by region. If such treatment is not tolerated or is contraindicated, a GLP-1 RA with proven cardiovascular outcome benefit could be considered to reduce MACE and should be continued until kidney replacement therapy is indicated.
In people with HF, SGLT2i should be used because they improve HF and kidney outcomes.
In individuals without established CVD but with multiple cardiovascular risk factors (such as age ≥55 years, obesity, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, or albuminuria), a GLP-1 RA with proven benefit could be used to reduce MACE, or an SGLT2i with proven benefit could be used to reduce MACE and HF and improve kidney outcomes.
In people with HF, CKD, established CVD, or multiple risk factors for CVD, the decision to use a GLP-1 RA or SGLT2i with proven benefit should be independent of background use of metformin.
SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA reduce MACE, which is likely to be independent of baseline HbA1c. In people with HF, CKD, established CVD, or multiple risk factors for CVD, the decision to use a GLP-1 RA or an SGLT2i with proven benefit should be independent of baseline HbA1c.
In general, selection of medications to improve cardiovascular and kidney outcomes should not differ for older people.
In younger people with diabetes (<40 years), consider early combination therapy.
In women with reproductive potential, counseling regarding contraception and taking care to avoid exposure to medications that may adversely affect a fetus are important.
In the massively bleeding patient with coagulopathy, our group recommends the administration of an initial bolus of 25 IU.kg-1. This applies for: the acute reversal of vitamin K antagonist therapy; haemostatic resuscitation, particularly in trauma; and the reversal of direct oral anticoagulants when no specific antidote is available.
In patients with a high risk for thromboembolic complications, e.g. cardiac surgery, the administration of an initial half-dose bolus (12.5 IU.kg-1) should be considered.
A second bolus may be indicated if coagulopathy and microvascular bleeding persists and other reasons for bleeding are largely ruled out. Tissue-factor-activated, factor VII-dependent and heparin insensitive point-of-care tests may be used for peri-operative monitoring and guiding of prothrombin complex concentrate therapy.
For the endpoint of rapid INR reduction, the results from our trial are consistent with previously published (mainly observational) data and demonstrate that 4F-PCC is non-inferior and superior to plasma for rapid INR reduction in patients on VKA therapy.
Furthermore, we noted that 4F-PCC could be given more rapidly than plasma, which is in agreement with previously published (retrospectively collected) data.24
For the endpoint of clinical efficacy, we found no other adequately powered trial examining reversal of VKA therapy in patients needing urgent surgical procedures, and this trial therefore offers new insights into their treatment. We noted that 4F-PCC was superior to plasma for haemostatic efficacy.
Although our study was not powered to assess safety, we did not detect any between-treatment differences for the occurrence of thromboembolic events or deaths, a finding in agreement with the existing scientific literature.11, 17, 25, 26 Additionally, although these data guide clinicians on how best to achieve urgent VKA reversal, the scientific literature concerning which patients should be urgently reversed before surgical or invasive interventions continues to evolve; for example, findings from a recent trial showed the safety of pacemaker placement without interruption of anticoagulation.29
Among the key recommendations in this article are the following:
For dosing of VKAs, we recommend the initiation of oral anticoagulation therapy, with doses between 5 mg and 10 mg for the first 1 or 2 days for most individuals, with subsequent dosing based on the international normalized ratio (INR) response (Grade 1B); we suggest against pharmacogenetic-based dosing until randomized data indicate that it is beneficial (Grade 2C); and in elderly and other patient subgroups who are debilitated or malnourished, we recommend a starting dose of ≤ 5 mg (Grade 1C). The article also includes several specific recommendations for the management of patients with nontherapeutic INRs, with INRs above the therapeutic range, and with bleeding whether the INR is therapeutic or elevated.
For most patients who have a lupus inhibitor, we recommend a therapeutic target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0 to 3.0) [Grade 1A].
We recommend that physicians who manage oral anticoagulation therapy do so in a systematic and coordinated fashion, incorporating patient education, systematic INR testing, tracking, follow-up, and good patient communication of results and dose adjustments [Grade 1B].
In patients who are suitably selected and trained, patient self-testing or patient self-management of dosing are effective alternative treatment models that result in improved quality of anticoagulation management, with greater time in the therapeutic range and fewer adverse events. Patient self-monitoring or self-management, however, is a choice made by patients and physicians that depends on many factors. We suggest that such therapeutic management be implemented where suitable (Grade 2B).
In patients on VKA therapy presenting with severe hemorrhage, international guidelines recommend, as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, the administration of PCC (≥20 UI/kg) and vitamin K (≥5 mg) to normalize coagulation (post-reversal INR ≤1.5).
A guideline-concordant administration dose of PCC and vitamin K administrated in the first eight hours was associated with a two-fold decrease in seven-day mortality overall and with a three-fold decrease in the ICH subgroup
The guideline-concordant reversal was performed in 38% of the patients within eight hours after admission
Whereas pre-reversal INR is not absolutely necessary, post-reversal INR is essential to evaluate treatment efficacy
The post-reversal INR target must be performed systematically and immediately after PCC administration
The case: Patient came in for laparoscopic colectomy. She had a history of severe COPD, newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of colon, anemia (Hb 9), newly diagnosed ANCA vasculitis, h/o mitral stenosis s/p robotic mitral valve replacement, pulmonary HTN, severe TR, systemic HTN, normal EF. Patient had recent exacerbations of CHF with BNP in 1200s. Recent (within the last 3 months) history of coding on induction requiring chest compressions during robotic MVR (50mg propofol). On a steroid taper.
BPs 180-200s/90-110s; PAPs 40-60s/20-40s. 50kg.
Plan: aline, swan, R2, slow induction
Induction: fentanyl 50mcg, propofol 20mg, lidocaine 100mg, etomidate 10mg, roc 50mg. Gtt: epinephrine @ 0.02mcg/kg/min, norepinephrine @ 0.04mcg/kg/min. Milrinone arrived to OR after induction. Able to titrate off epinephrine to Milrinone 0.3mcg/kg/min even with insufflation of abdomen. Did not need to decrease insufflation pressures as hemodynamics were relatively stable.
Extubated safely at the end of the case. Received 100mcg fentanyl, 20mg ketamine, Exparel TAP block, pre-op PO Tylenol 1000mg for pain control. She’s doing well and pleased with her anesthetic management.
80 something year old male came for reverse total shoulder replacement. He had severe COPD as well as an EF 20% with CHF. He had been appropriately optimized. Preoperatively, we performed an anterior approach suprascapular block (10ml, 0.25% bupi) combined with an infraclavicular block (20ml, 0.25% bupi). In retrospect, we could have used 5ml for suprascapular block and 15ml for infraclavicular block.
I made the very difficult decision to change jobs. I was with Anesthesia Service Medical Group (ASMG) from 2011-2022. My time at Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla was incredible. There are wonderful and competent surgeons, stellar nurses, fabulous anesthesia techs, dedicated ancillary staff, and collegial anesthesia partners. The reason for my departure: work-life balance. For me, work-life balance is being able to spend time with my family. The way our call structure is designed is to constantly be available to the hospital for add-ons without knowing a time that you are done with work. This often leads to 2-3x/week of not knowing when I can give my husband and kids a set time when I will be home. My kids are 4.5 and 3.5 years old. I want to be more available to them for school activities, dinner, and bed times. My husband and I both have very demanding jobs and I could see the toll my current job was taking on him as well as the kids.
This led me to look at other models that may be more receptive to a working mother who wants to work hard as well as be a present-mom with less mom guilt. This is a personal decision.
I landed on a model at Kaiser where I will know when I will be done everyday as it is primarily shiftwork. Yes, I will still take call, work weekends/nights/ holidays,etc… but when I am done, I will be done. I am excited knowing that I will be able to tell my kids that I will be home for dinner or home to tuck them in. The littles are growing so quickly. Kindergarten will start for my oldest in 2023 and G will follow in 2024. If I break down their ages in 5 year timeframe… 0-5 is almost complete. Next will be 5-10 and 10-15 and 15-20. The first 5 year time frame went by quickly. Everyone says it goes by so fast. I want to stop and enjoy this time.
I still want to work hard and push myself career-wise, and I do plan on doing that. My goal is to continue evidence-based practice focused on patient care, dive into more ERAS guidelines, bring my private practice experience to the Kaiser model, encourage well-being mentally and physically, and lean into more leadership roles acting as a mentor and role model.
In November 2022, I opted to try a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) to track my blood sugar readings. Granted, I am not diabetic, however my father and my aunt are diabetics and I had gestational diabetes during my 2nd pregnancy. I’m a bit of a data nerd and like to see how my body responds to the things I eat. So, I signed up for a program through Zoe and started following the app and logging my food. After I completed the 14 days, I then stumbled upon Glucose Goddess and want to try another 14 days with the CGM. Here’s the data from the first trial.
I felt that my blood glucose was actually pretty well maintained. My average reading was 94 and I fluctuated from 72-138. That’s pretty much carrying on with my regular lifestyle: protein shake for breakfast, whole food plant based meal for lunch, and regular dinner and a snack before bed. After reading the Glucose Revolution book, I find that I have an even better understanding of what I can do to improve my stability and consistency of my glucose curve. 2nd trial coming soon!
I opted to try the CGM again for a two week period. Similar results with the diet/nutrition and knowledge that I had from before. Biggest issue is will power.
Breakfast: ACV water when wake up. Vedge protein shake
Lunch: PBM or balance of veggies to protein w ACV
Snack: Vedge protein shake
Dinner: ACV, balance of veggies and protein
Kept wine/bevies to 1-2 on weekend only. My body just doesn’t like it and I sleep like crap. If I am to have alcohol, it’s better at lunch for me so it doesn’t mess up my sleep.
After listening to the Huberman Lab podcast (and you should too! He’s got nuggets of info on health!), I decided to schedule a Dexa Scan as well as VO2 max test. I want to have a baseline of where I am at my age. This year has been a huge year of change. I’ve committed to my health (yes I’m currently 7 months in with a strength program called Rise; I started 1-2x/wk rowing; MMA 1x/wk). I’m changing jobs. I have cut back or cut out unnecessary or harmful things to my life. I’m participating in a glucose monitoring study. I wish I had done these metrics every decade of my life starting at 10.
The more I dig into the world of health and wellness, the more there is to learn. Hormones, gut health, nutrition, supplements, macros/micros, exercise (role for mobility, flexibility, cardio, strength, functional, etc). I wish they taught this stuff in medical school. This is the real foundation of health and wellness.