Regional Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgery

Gathering data for Cardiac ERAS program for our hospital as well as the SCA. This page will be continuously updated as I find more information.

Resources:



What I’m using these days:

  • August 2020: None as we do not have programmable intermittent bolus pumps for regional.

Methadone: perioperative pain use

Methadone for perioperative pain #methadone #pain #ERAS

There’s a lot of great data that methadone use decreases postoperative narcotics use in cardiac surgery patients, and I believe it would really be a beneficial drug in an ERAS pathway for early extubation, decreased LOS in ICU and hospital, and better patient satisfaction.  Please see the articles below/attached for references.

Methadone for cardiac surgery: 0.2-0.3 mg/kg prior to incision – perhaps different metabolism on CPB so consider split dosing pre-pump and post-pump. Dose adjustment with age and other co-morbidities. At induction, one half of the study opioid (either 0.15 mg/kg of methadone or 6 μg/kg of fentanyl) was administered via an infusion pump over 5 min. The remainder of the study opioid (0.15 mg/kg of methadone or 6 μg/kg of fentanyl) was infused over the next 2 h. Either 0.3 mg/kg of methadone (maximum dose of 30 mg) or 12 μg/kg of fentanyl (maximum dose of 1200 μg) was added to 100-ml bags of normal saline (total volume 100 ml).

Methadone for non-cardiac surgery: 0.2mg/kg prior to incision. REVIEW: Intraoperative Methadone in Surgical Patients: A Review of Clinical Investigations. Anesthesiology 9 2019, Vol.131, 678-692.

Methadone for obesity: 0.15 mg/kg IBW+20% at induction. J Pain Res. 2018; 11: 2123–2129. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study.

Methadone for outpatient surgery: 0.15 mg/kg ideal body weight. Anesth Analg. 2019 Apr; 128(4): 802–810. Intraoperative Methadone in Same-Day Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Dose-Finding Pilot Study.

OVERALL: A variety of doses have been used in clinical trials, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg, with the majority of studies using a dose of either 0.2 mg/kg or a fixed dose of 20 mg.

Methadone has a long elimination half-life (1–2 days). It is cleared predominantly by hepatic metabolism, primarily via N-demethylation to 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), which is pharmacologically inactive, and thence secondarily to 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP).

Together these investigations established that a) CYP3A has no influence on single-dose intravenous or oral methadone plasma concentrations, b) CYP3A plays a minimal (if any) role clinically in single-dose methadone N-demethylation and clearance, c) methadone is not a clinical CYP3A substrate, and d) clinical guidelines stating that methadone is a CYP3A4 substrate and warning about CYP3A4 drug interactions needed revision. In addition, CYPs 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 do not appear to contribute materially to clinical methadone N-demethylation and clearance.

In summary, it is now obvious that CYP2B6 a) is a predominant catalyst of methadone metabolism in vitro; b) mediates clinical methadone metabolism, clearance, stereoselective disposition, and drug-drug interactions; and c) genetic polymorphisms influence methadone disposition. Thus, both constitutive variability due to CYP2B6 genetics, and CYP2B6-mediated drug interactions, can alter methadone disposition, clinical effect, and drug safety. Rewritten clinical guidelines stating that methadone is a CYP2B6 substrate and warning about CYP2B6 drug interactions may improve methadone use, treatment of pain and substance abuse, and patient safety.

FDA Drug Datasheet

From Anesthesiology 5 2015, Vol.122, 1112-1122.
From Anesth Analg. 2019 Apr; 128(4): 802–810.

What I’m doing these days:

  • July 2020


Adult Cardiothoracic

Adult Non-Cardiac

Adult Outpatient

Pediatric Surgery

Methadone Pharmacology & Effects

Updated July 2020

Prescription of Controlled Substances: Benefits and Risks. [Updated 2020 Jun 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537318/

The role of methadone in opioid rotation-a Polish experience. Support Care Cancer. 2009 May;17(5):607-12.

ERAS for Cardiac Surgery

ERAS for cardiac surgery. #eras #pain #multimodal #opioids #surgery #cardiac #perfusion #perfusionist

I have been utilizing ERAS in general surgery, OB, and ortho cases. Diving into one of my more tricky populations, I opted to see what ERAS practices are out there for cardiac surgery. Careful what you look for my friends. There’s actually a good amount of information out there!

ACCRAC podcast: ERAS for Cardiac Surgery

ERAS Cardiac Consensus Abstract – April 2018

Enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Volume 54, Issue 3, 1 September 2018, Pages 491–497, https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezy100

** Audio PPT ** American Association for Thoracic Surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery. April 2018

The impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol compliance on morbidity from resection for primary lung cancer. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. April 2018Volume 155, Issue 4, Pages 1843–1852.

Enhanced Recovery for Cardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 Jan 31. pii: S1053-0770(18)30049-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2018.01.045

ERAS
From Journal of Anesthesiology
 
 

A pilot goal-directed perfusion initiative is associated with less acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Jan;153(1):118-125.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.09.016. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery Society

**Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery Society Expert Recommendations**


My blog posts:


Key Points

  • Level 1 (Class of recommendation=Strong Benefit):
    • Tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid should be administered for on-pump cardiac surgical procedures to reduce blood loss.
    • Perioperative glycemic control is recommended (BS 70-180; [110-150]).
    • A care bundle of best practices should be performed to reduce surgical site infection.
    • Goal-directed therapy should be performed to reduce postoperative complications.
    • A multimodal, opioid-sparing, pain management plan is recommended postoperatively
    • Persistent hypothermia (T<35o C) after CPB should be avoided in the early postoperative period. Additionally, hyperthermia (T>38oC) should be avoided in the early postoperative period.
    • Active maintenance of chest tube patency is effective at preventing retained blood syndrome.
    • Post-operative systematic delirium screening is recommended at least once per nursing shift.
    • An ICU liberation bundle should be implemented including delirium screening, appropriate sedation and early mobilization.
    • Screening and treatment for excessive alcohol and cigarette smoking should be performed preoperatively when feasible.
  • Level IIa (Class of recommendation=Moderate Benefit)
    • Biomarkers can be beneficial in identifying patients at risk for acute kidney injury.
    • Rigid sternal fixation can be useful to reduce mediastinal wound complications.
    • Prehabilitation is beneficial for patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with multiple comorbidities or significant deconditioning.
    • Insulin infusion is reasonable to be performed to treat hyperglycemia in all patients in the perioperative period.
    • Early extubation strategies after surgery are reasonable to be employed.
    • Patient engagement through online or application-based systems to promote education, compliance, and patient reported outcomes can be useful.
    • Chemical thromboprophylaxis can be beneficial following cardiac surgery.
    • Preoperative assessment of hemoglobin A1c and albumin is reasonable to be performed.
    • Correction of nutritional deficiency, when feasible, can be beneficial.
  • Level IIb (Class of recommendation=Weak Benefit)
    • A clear liquid diet may be considered to be continued up until 4 hours before general anesthesia.
    • Carbohydrate loading may be considered before surgery.

ERAS for cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia

grant.eracs_.jtcvs-002.pdf

multimodal-analgesia-protocol-pocket-card.pdf

Cardiac ERAS. JCVA 2020. PDF.

**Guidelines for Perioperative Care in Cardiac SurgeryEnhanced Recovery After Surgery Society Recommendations. JAMA, May 2019.**

Alvimopan and ERAS

From Anesthesia & Analgesia 2018

Alvimopan / Entereg

The Food and Drug Administration approved alvimopan in 2008 as an oral, peripherally acting opioid μ-receptor antagonist to accelerate GI recovery in patients undergoing bowel resection.87,88 A pooled analysis of 3 prospective randomized trials demonstrated that a 12 mg dosing regimen provided optimal reduction in GI morbidity and return of GI function after abdominal surgery.89

Vaughan-Shaw et al90 performed a meta-analysis involving 3 studies of 1388 patients undergoing open abdominal surgery (bowel resection and hysterectomy) within a defined accelerated recovery program. This study demonstrated a 16- to 20-hour reduction in the time to GI recovery and discharge order associated with alvimopan use. It is important to note that the defined accelerated recovery program in each of these studies was limited to early removal of prophylactic NG tubes, clear liquids on POD 1, and encouragement of ambulation. Each study utilized patient-controlled analgesia with heavy doses of opioids.91 Therefore, these trials were conducted in open surgery within the setting of an opioid-centric treatment pathway, which is not consistent with most modern day ERPs. There are no high-quality prospective randomized trials examining the efficacy of alvimopan within the setting of an opioid-restricted modern day ERP or after minimally invasive surgery.

However, there are large database studies evaluating the use of alvimopan in current practice. The Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative group reported that the usage of alvimopan in the community resulted in a decrease in mean LOS (4.8 vs 6.4 days) due principally to a reduction in ileus (7.9% vs 2.3%).92 Similarly, the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program evaluated 14,781 patients undergoing elective CRS comparing those that did (11%) and did not receive (89%) alvimopan and found a LOS reduction of 1.8 days and a cost reduction of $2017 related to ileus reduction in patients receiving alvimopan.93 Adam et al94 reported on a single institution experience of 660 patients after implementation of alvimopan as part of an established ERP (197 alvimopan; 463 no alvimopan) and demonstrated a faster return of bowel function, a lower incidence of ileus, a shorter LOS, and a hospital cost savings of $1492 per patient. These results are consistent with similar retrospective cohort study by Itawi et al.95 It should be noted that the potential benefits of alvimopan are likely related to the amount/duration of opioid analgesics as demonstrated by 2 separate retrospective studies demonstrating minimal benefit in a laparoscopic colectomy population managed with minimal opioids.96,97

The data suggest a reproducible benefit associated with the use of alvimopan in open CRS; however, the cost/benefit ratio must be considered within the context of the opioid administration of each institution’s ERP. Barletta et al50 confirmed that the intravenous opioid dosage that results in ileus might be quite modest (2-mg hydromorphone). Additional data would be helpful to clearly define the minimum dose exposure and route of administration of opioids that would best guide the use of alvimopan within a comprehensive ERP. However, if modest opioid exposure is anticipated, the agent appears to be cost-effective.

https://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/Fulltext/2018/06000/American_Society_for_Enhanced_Recovery_and.20.aspx

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS)

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Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols: Time to change practice? Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct; 5(5): 342–348.

Dario Bugada, Valentina Bellini, Andrea Fanelli, et al., “Future Perspectives of ERAS: A Narrative Review on the New Applications of an Established Approach,” Surgery Research and Practice, vol. 2016, Article ID 3561249, 6 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3561249

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: If You Are Not Implementing it, Why Not? PRACTICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY • APRIL 2016.

A Systematic Review of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways: How Are We Measuring ‘Recovery?’ Session: Poster Presentation. Program Number: P613

46210

Sturm L and Cameron AL. Fast-track surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. ASERNIP-S Report No. 74. Adelaide, South Australia: ASERNIP-S, March 2009.

Summary of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline Recommendations. Canada.

Patients Benefit From Enhanced Recovery Programs: Are Better Prepared for Surgery, Have Less Pain, Studies Show. Oct 2016. American Society of Anesthesiologists.

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline: Perioperative Pain Management in Patients Having Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Quality Initiative of the Best Practice in General Surgery Part of CAHO’s ARTIC program. April 2013.

Preserved Analgesia With Reduction in Opioids Through the Use of an Acute Pain Protocol in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Open Hepatectomy. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine: July/August 2017 – Volume 42 – Issue 4 – p 451–457.

Regional Anesthesia for surgery and other comparative studies. Sweden.

ERAS: Role of Anesthesiologist. UTSW.

Stanford Anesthesia ERAS pathway website

13012_2017_597_fig6_html

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Versus Perioperative Surgical Home: Is It All in the Name? Anesthesia & Analgesia: May 2014 – Volume 118 – Issue 5 – p 901–902

The Role of Regional Anesthesia in ERAS pathways. Sept 2015. UCSF.

ERAS Pathway Improves Analgesia, Opioid Use and PONV Following Total Mastectomy. Anesthesiology News. May 2016.

Anesthesia Practice and ERAS. Cooper University Hospital. 2017.

ERAS: Anesthesia Tutorial of the Week. Number 204. Nov 2010.

ERAS and Anesthesia. Anesthesia Business Consultants. May 2015.

All about ERAS: Why anesthesiologists need to understand this concept. Becker’s ASC Review. June 2015.

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I’d love to incorporate my findings and use of lidocaine infusions and ketamine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative pain as a multimodal pain management pathway.

What we’re using:

  • July 2020
    • Acetaminophen 1g PO (cardiac, gen surg)
    • Celebrex 400mg PO (gen surg)
    • Gabapentin 600mg PO (gen surg)
    • Lyrica 75mg PO (cardiac)
    • Entereg mg PO (gen surg)

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS)

Enhanced recovery after surgery #ERAS #anesthesia #pain #recovery

srv160008f1

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols: Time to change practice? Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct; 5(5): 342–348.

Dario Bugada, Valentina Bellini, Andrea Fanelli, et al., “Future Perspectives of ERAS: A Narrative Review on the New Applications of an Established Approach,” Surgery Research and Practice, vol. 2016, Article ID 3561249, 6 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3561249

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: If You Are Not Implementing it, Why Not? PRACTICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY • APRIL 2016.

A Systematic Review of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways: How Are We Measuring ‘Recovery?’  Session: Poster Presentation. Program Number: P613

46210

Sturm L and Cameron AL. Fast-track surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. ASERNIP-S Report No. 74. Adelaide, South Australia: ASERNIP-S, March 2009.

Summary of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline Recommendations. Canada.

Patients Benefit From Enhanced Recovery Programs: Are Better Prepared for Surgery, Have Less Pain, Studies Show. Oct 2016. American Society of Anesthesiologists.

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline: Perioperative Pain Management in Patients Having Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Quality Initiative of the Best Practice in General Surgery Part of CAHO’s ARTIC program. April 2013.

Preserved Analgesia With Reduction in Opioids Through the Use of an Acute Pain Protocol in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Open Hepatectomy. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine: July/August 2017 – Volume 42 – Issue 4 – p 451–457.

Regional Anesthesia for surgery and other comparative studies. Sweden.

ERAS: Role of Anesthesiologist. UTSW.

Stanford Anesthesia ERAS pathway website

13012_2017_597_fig6_html

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Versus Perioperative Surgical Home: Is It All in the Name? Anesthesia & Analgesia: May 2014 – Volume 118 – Issue 5 – p 901–902

The Role of Regional Anesthesia in ERAS pathways. Sept 2015. UCSF.

ERAS Pathway Improves Analgesia, Opioid Use and PONV Following Total Mastectomy. Anesthesiology News. May 2016.

Anesthesia Practice and ERAS. Cooper University Hospital. 2017.

ERAS: Anesthesia Tutorial of the Week. Number 204. Nov 2010.

ERAS and Anesthesia. Anesthesia Business Consultants. May 2015.

All about ERAS: Why anesthesiologists need to understand this concept. Becker’s ASC Review. June 2015.

hqdefault

 

I’d love to incorporate my findings and use of lidocaine infusions and ketamine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative pain as a multimodal pain management pathway.

Ketamine for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia

I’m always looking for ways to improve myself. Lately, I’m looking at various clinical elements of my practice and select certain endpoints that will better my practice of medicine.

This time, I’ve focused on cutting back on opioids intraoperatively for pain. I’m looking specifically at ketamine, an old drug with multiple benefits (and some downsides). Not only does ketamine help with intraoperative pain, but it also helps with postoperative pain. I’d like to incorporate some type of ERAS model for all of my patients and surgeries.

ketamine_hydrochloride_050

Ketamine: (different doses I’ve seen in the literature below)

• Induction: 0.2-0.5 mg/kg

• Infusion: 0.1mg/kg/hr before incision

◦ 2mcg/kg/hr x 24hr (spine)

◦ 0.1-0.15mg/kg/hr x 24-72hrs (UW)

◦ 2mcg/kg/min

◦ 2-8mcg/kg/min

Overall, moderate evidence supports use
of subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus doses (up to 0.35 mg/kg) and infusions (up to 1 mg/kg per hour) as adjuncts to opioids
for perioperative analgesia (grade B recommendation, moder-
ate level of certainty).

From Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine • Volume 43, Number 5, July 2018

What I’m using nowadays:

  • Oct 2017:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction bolus=0.5mg/kg; infusion=0.1mg/kg/hr and stopping when last stitch placed. Patients seem to require less postoperative narcotics. Looking at time to extubation to see if this is improved.  Time to extubation seems the same as my prior non-ketamine patients because RT and RNs follow a weaning protocol.  Patients are more comfortable and require less pain medication.
  • Dec 2018:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction bolus = 0.5 mg/kg + another 0.5 mg/kg bolus when re-warming.
  • July 2020:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction infusion 0.3mg/kg/hr + 0.5mg/kg right before incision. 0.2mg/kg/hr when commence CPB. 0.1mg/kg/hr when re-warming. Stop infusion when driving wires.
    • Main OR: induction 0.35mg/kg + 0.2mg/kg/hr or 3mcg/kg/min = extubate patient in OR. Stop infusion when closing.
    • **Excel spreadsheet for dosing**
  • August 2020:
    • Cardiac open hearts: induction infusion 0.2mg/kg/hr + 0.35mg/kg right before incision. 0.1mg/kg/hr when re-warming. Stop infusion when driving wires.
    • Main OR: induction 0.35mg/kg + 0.1mg/kg/hr = extubate patient in OR. Stop infusion when starting to close. If fast closure, consider stopping infusion 30min to 1 hour prior to end of case.

fg01_e6952
Is intravenous ketamine effective for postoperative pain management in adults? Medwave2017;17(Suppl2):e6952 doi: 10.5867/medwave.2017.6952

Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesth Essays Res. 2014 Sep-Dec; 8(3): 283–290.

Effect of intraoperative infusion of low-dose ketamine on management of postoperative analgesia. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015 Jul-Dec; 6(2): 378–382.

Ketamine for Perioperative Pain Management. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:211–20.

CLINICAL GUIDELINE FOR USE OF KETAMINE AS AN ADJUVANT ANALGESIC FOR USE BY ANAESTHETISTS ONLY. NHS Royal Cornwall Guidelines June 2015.

Ketamine as an Adjunct to Postoperative Pain Management in Opioid Tolerant Patients After Spinal Fusions: A Prospective Randomized Trial. HSS Journal: Volume 4, Number 1.

The Use of Intravenous Infusion or Single Dose of Low-Dose Ketamine for Postoperative Analgesia: A Review of the Current Literature. Pain Medicine Volume 16, Issue 2, pages 383–403, February 2015.

Role of Ketamine in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Narrative Review. BioMed Research International. Volume 2015; Article ID 749837, 10 pages.

 

Ketamine in Pain Management. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 19 (2013) 396–402.

Ketamine for the Management of Acute Pain and Agitation in the ICU: Future, Fiction or Just another Drug-Induced Hallucination? Ann Pharmacol Pharm. 2017; 2(11): 1059.

Intraoperative ketamine for prevention of postoperative delirium or pain after major surgery in older adults: an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2017; 390: 267–75.

A comparison between intravenous lidocaine and ketamine on acute and chronic pain after open nephrectomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Saudi J Anaesth 2017;11:177-84.

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Acute and Chronic Post-Thoracotomy Pain, modes of treatment

Another project I’m working on is the effect of lidocaine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative pain.


***UPDATE July 8, 2018 ***

AnesthesiologyNews: July 2018: New Consensus Guidelines Issued for Use of IV Ketamine for Acute Pain.

  • Question 1: Which patients and acute pain conditions should be considered for ketamine treatment?
    Conclusion: For patients undergoing painful surgery, subanesthetic ketamine infusions should be considered. Ketamine also may be warranted for opioid-dependent or opioid-tolerant patients undergoing surgery, or with acute or chronic sickle cell pain. For patients with sleep apnea, ketamine may be appropriate as an adjunct to limit opioid use.
  • Question 2: What dose range is considered subanesthetic, and does the evidence support dosing in this range for acute pain?
    Conclusion: Ketamine bolus doses should not exceed 0.35 mg/kg, whereas infusions for acute pain generally should not exceed 1 mg/kg per hour in settings lacking intensive monitoring. However, dosing outside this range may be indicated because of an individual patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors and other considerations, such as prior ketamine exposure. However, ketamine’s adverse effects prevent some patients from tolerating higher doses for acute pain; therefore, unlike for chronic pain management, lower doses in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg per hour may be necessary to achieve an acceptable balance between analgesia and adverse events.
  • Question 3: What is the evidence to support ketamine infusions as an adjunct to opioids and other analgesic therapies for perioperative analgesia?
    Conclusion: There is moderate evidence to support using subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus doses up to 0.35 mg/kg and infusions up to 1 mg/kg per hour as adjuncts to opioids for perioperative analgesia.
  • Question 4: What are the contraindications to ketamine infusions in the setting of acute pain management, and do they differ from chronic pain settings?
    Conclusion: Patients with poorly controlled cardiovascular disease or who are pregnant or have active psychosis should avoid ketamine. Similarly, for hepatic dysfunction, patients with severe disease, such as cirrhosis, should not take the medicine; however, ketamine can be given with caution for moderate disease by monitoring liver function tests before infusion and during infusions in surveillance of elevations. On the other hand, ketamine should not be given to patients with elevated intracranial pressure or elevated intraocular pressure.
  • Question 5: What is the evidence to support nonparenteral ketamine for acute pain management?
    Conclusion: Intranasal ketamine is beneficial for acute pain management by achieving effective analgesia and amnesia/procedural sedation. Patients for whom IV access is difficult and in children undergoing procedures are likely candidates. But for oral ketamine, the evidence is less convincing, although anecdotal reports suggest this route may provide short-term advantages in some patients with acute pain.
  • Question 6: Does any evidence support IV ketamine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for acute pain?
    Conclusion: The evidence is limited to support IV ketamine PCA as the sole analgesic for acute or periprocedural pain. There is moderate evidence, however, to support the addition of ketamine to an opioid-based IV PCA regimen for acute and perioperative pain therapy.

New guidelines for the use of IV ketamine infusions for acute pain management have been published as a special article in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (2018;43[5]:456-466).

The guidelines were jointly developed by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA), the American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.


Update Nov, 30, 2018

Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Acute Pain Management From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: July 2018 – Volume 43 – Issue 5 – p 456–466

Consensus Guidelines on the Use of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Chronic Pain From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists.  Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine: July 2018 – Volume 43 – Issue 5 – p 521–546


Updated July 2020

Analgesic effect of subanesthetic intravenous ketamine in refractory neuropathic pain: a case report. Pain Med. 2010 Jun;11(6):946-50.

Ketamine: An Introduction for the Pain and Palliative Medicine Physician. Pain Physician 2007; 10:493-500.

Non-opioid IV adjuvants in the perioperative period: Pharmacological and clinical aspects of ketamine and gabapentinoids. Pharmacological Research. Volume 65, Issue 4, April 2012, Pages 411-429.

Clinical application of perioperative multimodal analgesia. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2017 Jun;11(2):106-111.

A comparison of gabapentin and ketamine in acute and chronic pain after hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2009 Nov;109(5):1645-50.

Adjunct low-dose ketamine infusion vs standard of care in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients at a Tertiary Saudi Hospital (ATTAINMENT Trial): study protocol for a randomized, prospective, pilot, feasibility trial. Trials. March 2020; 21: 288.

Safety and Efficacy of Ketamine-dexmedetomidine versus Ketamine-propofol Combinations for Sedation in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Ann Card Anaesth. 2017 Apr-Jun; 20(2): 182–187.

Ketamine Infusion in Post-Surgical Pain Management after Head and Neck Surgery: A Retrospective Observational Study. The Open Anesthesia Journal. Formerly: The Open Anesthesiology Journal. ISSN: 2589-6458 ― Volume 14, 2020.

Ketamine to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation: A case report. J of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Case Reports. Vol 3 | Issue 1 | Jan-Apr 2017 | page: 11-13.

Impact of Low-Dose Ketamine on the Usage of Continuous Opioid Infusion for the Treatment of Pain in Adult Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Surgical Intensive Care Units. J of Intensive Care Medicine. May 2017. Volume: 34 issue: 8, page(s): 646-651.

Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview. Front. Neurosci., 16 February 2016.

Ketamine: A Versatile Tool in the Perioperative Period and Beyond. ASRA News, Feb 2017.

Lidocaine infusions for pain

From Anesthesiology 2017

BJA Educ, April 2016. Intravenous lidocaine for acute pain: an evidence-based clinical update

Lidocaine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management – Vanderbilt

Cocharane Library, July 2015. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

Perioperative Use of Intravenous Lidocaine. Anesthesiology 4 2017, Vol.126, 729-737.

30tt01

Open Access Journals, Jan 2017. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain.

Anesthesiology, April 2017. Perioperative use of IV lidocaine.

From Jama Surgery 2017

Here’s what I’m currently using:

  • October 2017
  • Lidocaine bolus: 1.5mg/kg on induction
  • Infusion: 2-3mg/kg/hr after induction to end surgery
  • If cardiac on CPB: bolus 1.5mg/kg on induction; Infusion: 4 mg/min x 48 hrs or discharge from ICU; On CPB bolus 4 mg/kg.
  • July 2020
  • I moved away from lidocaine infusions for pain bc they didn’t seem to help with postoperative cognitive decline.
  • Excel spreadsheet for dosing

I’m also currently working on ERAS protocols for my practice as well as the use of ketamine infusions for intraoperative and postoperative pain and recovery.

Lidocaine infusions for pain

From Anesthesiology 2017

BJA Educ, April 2016. Intravenous lidocaine for acute pain: an evidence-based clinical update

Lidocaine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management – Vanderbilt

Cocharane Library, July 2015. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

Perioperative Use of Intravenous Lidocaine. Anesthesiology 4 2017, Vol.126, 729-737.

30tt01

Open Access Journals, Jan 2017. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain.

Anesthesiology, April 2017. Perioperative use of IV lidocaine.

From Jama Surgery 2017

 

Here’s what I’m currently using:

  • October 2017
    • Lidocaine bolus: 1.5mg/kg on induction
    • Infusion: 2-3mg/kg/hr after induction to end surgery
    • If cardiac on CPB: bolus 1.5mg/kg on induction; Infusion: 4 mg/min x 48 hrs or discharge from ICU; On CPB bolus 4 mg/kg.

I’m also currently working on ERAS protocols for my practice as well as the use of ketamine infusions for intraoperative and postoperative pain and recovery.