Protecting patient safety

Check out @ASAGrassroots’s Tweet: https://twitter.com/ASAGrassroots/status/981951115062337536?s=09

#NewYork budget excluded provision that would have undermined physician-led anesthesia care, opposed by @ASALifeline & @NYSSApga. #THANKYOU to New York lawmakers for protecting patient safety. #SafeAnesthesia4NY
https://t.co/3M5wQm0TK8

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Responsibility for your own health

I was shocked to see that the NHS could ban surgery for the obese and smokers.  That’s socialized medicine.  You take a conglomerate group of people (the UK) on a limited budget for healthcare… and basically find the cheapest most cost-effective way to deliver healthcare.  But in a way, it’s empowering patients to take responsibility for their own health.  Smoking, for sure — I agree 100% that surgery should be banned for this population.  Obesity is a bit trickier — there’s genetics and environmental factors at play in this one.  I don’t think anyone chooses to be obese.  But, people do have the power to change their eating and exercise habits.  Despite these efforts, there are some people who are still obese…. and these people should not be faulted.

Why single out the obese and smokers?

obesity-and-cv-disease-1ppt-44-728
From SlideShare
obesity-and-cv-disease-1ppt-43-728
From SlideShare
tobacco-health-statistics
From TobaccoFreeLife.org

Smokers and the obese have elevated surgical risk and mortality, which means more cost to treat and hospitalize and provide ongoing care.

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From HealthStats

I think the NHS is on to something here.  They’re opening doors to moving the liability and responsibility away from physicians and towards patients.  This is a plus.  Outsiders may see it as separatism and elitist to only provide care for people who are healthy.  But look at the facts and the data…. obesity has a lot of co-morbidities associated.  Smoking has a lot of co-morbidities associated as well.  Why should physicians be penalized for re-admissions, poor wound healing, longer hospitalizations when the underlying conditions themselves are already challenging enough?  In fact, I would urge insurance companies to provide incentives to patients/the insured with discounted rates for good and maintained health and wellness.  With all the technologies, medications, and information out there, it’s time patients take responsibility for their own health.  I take responsibility for mine — watching my diet, exercising, working on getting enough rest, maintaining activities to keep my mind and body engaged, meditating for rest and relaxation.  It’s not easy, but my health is 100% my responsibility.  I refuse to pass the buck to my husband, my family, my physician, etc.  I do what I can to optimize my health and future — and if that doesn’t work… I call for backup.

Patients need to change their mindset re: health.  It is not your spouse’s responsibility to track your meds.  It is your responsibility to know your medical conditions and surgical history.  The single most important (and thoughtful) thing a patient can do is keep an up-to-date list of medications, past/current medical history, surgical history, and allergies to bring to every doctor’s appointment and surgery.  This helps streamline and bring to the forefront your conditions and how these will interplay with your medical and surgical plan and postoperative care.  Please do not forget recreational drugs, smoking habit, and drinking habit in this list.  It is very important to know all of these things.  Also, your emotional history is very important.  Depression, anxiety, failure to cope, etc.  This all helps tie in your current living situation with stressors and your medical history.

Links for educating yourself in taking responsibility for your health:

obesity
From SilverStarUK.org

Emergency Checklists

It seems like in today’s day and age, emergencies are occurring everywhere.  From hurricanes to shooters to earthquakes and fires… I think it’s always important to know what to do.  Here are some fabulous checklists I’ve found for getting through those emergencies.  These are not substitutions for knowledge and training.  Clinical judgement warranted.

Emergency Manual from Stanford — Printable PDF

Ariadne Labs OR Crisis Checklist

Ariadne Labs Safe Surgery Checklist Template

Ariadne Labs Ambulatory Safe Surgery Checklist Template

Project Check

Newton-Wellesley’s L&D Checklists

WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist

Checklist for Trauma Anesthesia

ASRA checklist for Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity

WHO Surgical Safety Checklist

WHO H1N1 Checklist

Johns Hopkins Central Line Checklist

STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Checklist

Ariadne Labs Cardiac Surgery Checklist

STS General Thoracic Surgery Checklist

STS Congenital Heart Surgery Checklist

University of Kansas Daily ICU Quality Checklist

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS)

Enhanced recovery after surgery #ERAS #anesthesia #pain #recovery

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Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols: Time to change practice? Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct; 5(5): 342–348.

Dario Bugada, Valentina Bellini, Andrea Fanelli, et al., “Future Perspectives of ERAS: A Narrative Review on the New Applications of an Established Approach,” Surgery Research and Practice, vol. 2016, Article ID 3561249, 6 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3561249

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: If You Are Not Implementing it, Why Not? PRACTICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY • APRIL 2016.

A Systematic Review of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways: How Are We Measuring ‘Recovery?’  Session: Poster Presentation. Program Number: P613

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Sturm L and Cameron AL. Fast-track surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. ASERNIP-S Report No. 74. Adelaide, South Australia: ASERNIP-S, March 2009.

Summary of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline Recommendations. Canada.

Patients Benefit From Enhanced Recovery Programs: Are Better Prepared for Surgery, Have Less Pain, Studies Show. Oct 2016. American Society of Anesthesiologists.

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Guideline: Perioperative Pain Management in Patients Having Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Quality Initiative of the Best Practice in General Surgery Part of CAHO’s ARTIC program. April 2013.

Preserved Analgesia With Reduction in Opioids Through the Use of an Acute Pain Protocol in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Open Hepatectomy. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine: July/August 2017 – Volume 42 – Issue 4 – p 451–457.

Regional Anesthesia for surgery and other comparative studies. Sweden.

ERAS: Role of Anesthesiologist. UTSW.

Stanford Anesthesia ERAS pathway website

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Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Versus Perioperative Surgical Home: Is It All in the Name? Anesthesia & Analgesia: May 2014 – Volume 118 – Issue 5 – p 901–902

The Role of Regional Anesthesia in ERAS pathways. Sept 2015. UCSF.

ERAS Pathway Improves Analgesia, Opioid Use and PONV Following Total Mastectomy. Anesthesiology News. May 2016.

Anesthesia Practice and ERAS. Cooper University Hospital. 2017.

ERAS: Anesthesia Tutorial of the Week. Number 204. Nov 2010.

ERAS and Anesthesia. Anesthesia Business Consultants. May 2015.

All about ERAS: Why anesthesiologists need to understand this concept. Becker’s ASC Review. June 2015.

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I’d love to incorporate my findings and use of lidocaine infusions and ketamine infusions on intraoperative and postoperative pain as a multimodal pain management pathway.

Lidocaine infusions for pain

From Anesthesiology 2017

BJA Educ, April 2016. Intravenous lidocaine for acute pain: an evidence-based clinical update

Lidocaine Infusion for Perioperative Pain Management – Vanderbilt

Cocharane Library, July 2015. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

Perioperative Use of Intravenous Lidocaine. Anesthesiology 4 2017, Vol.126, 729-737.

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Open Access Journals, Jan 2017. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain.

Anesthesiology, April 2017. Perioperative use of IV lidocaine.

From Jama Surgery 2017

 

Here’s what I’m currently using:

  • October 2017
    • Lidocaine bolus: 1.5mg/kg on induction
    • Infusion: 2-3mg/kg/hr after induction to end surgery
    • If cardiac on CPB: bolus 1.5mg/kg on induction; Infusion: 4 mg/min x 48 hrs or discharge from ICU; On CPB bolus 4 mg/kg.

I’m also currently working on ERAS protocols for my practice as well as the use of ketamine infusions for intraoperative and postoperative pain and recovery.

Methadone and acute and chronic pain management

We had a journal club where we discussed this article: Anesthesiology, May 2017; Clinical effectiveness and safety of intraoperative methadone in patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion surgery: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial.

  • IV Methadone 0.2 mg/kg vs IV hydromorphone 2mg at surgical closure in 2+ level spinal fusion
  • Decreased postop IV and opioid requirements and pain scores.  Improved patient satisfaction

Questions:

  1. Is there a pain service following these patients postoperatively?
  2. Exclusions: do you include OSA and BMI>45 patients?
  3. Is ETCO2 and PCA enough to combat respiratory depression on the floor?
  4. Are any discharged on the same day after receiving this dose — think total knees and single level lamis?
  5. Will this improve or worsen the opioid epidemic?
  6. Are surgeons on board with tackling pain multimodally for the benefit of the patient?
  7. For pain follow-up, are there psychiatry, homeopathy, palliative care, PT, holistic approaches for the patient?

 

Methadone Dose Conversion Guidelines

Intraop Lidocaine for postop pain

Intraop Ketamine for postop pain

 

Literature search:

Sys Rev 2014: Effectiveness of opioid substitution treatments for patients with opioid dependence: a systematic review and multiple treatment protocol.

Am j of Pub Health, Aug 2014. Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 77(2): 272–284. Long term outcomes of pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence: does methadone still lead the pack?

PLoS One. 2014; 9(11): e112328. Methadone Induction in Primary Care for Opioid Dependence: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial (ANRS Methaville).

Curr Psychiatry Rev. 2014 May; 10(2): 156–167. Genetics of Opioid Dependence: A Review of the Genetic Contribution to Opioid Dependence. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Mar 1; 160: 112–118. Methadone, Buprenorphine and Preferences for Opioid Agonist Treatment: A Qualitative Analysis. 

Croat Med J. 2013 Feb; 54(1): 42–48. Risk factors for fatal outcome in patients with opioid dependence treated with methadone in a family medicine setting in Croatia. 

J Med Toxicol. 2016 Mar; 12(1): 58–63. Pharmacotherapy of Opioid Addiction: “Putting a Real Face on a False Demon”. 

Syst Rev. 2014; 3: 45. Sex differences in outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a systematic review protocol.

 

Cardiac Surgery in a Jehovah’s Witness Patient

AVR

Brief case summary

Habler_Fig1 v2_1
From Nata Online

Literature Search

Habler_Fig2 v2
From Nata Online

Antifibrinolytic Debate