Anesthesia for Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Breast Reconstruction

What is a latissimus dorsi flap?

From MDAnderson.org

Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Breast Reconstruction. Cancer Control. 2018 Jan-Dec; 25(1): 1073274817744638.

A Retrospective Study of Latissimus Dorsi Flap in Immediate Breast Reconstruction. Front. Oncol., 04 November 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.598604

Anesthetic Techniques

Regional Anesthesia For Breast Reconstruction. [Updated 2022 Feb 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-.

Anaesthesia for breast surgery. BJA Education, 18(11): 342e348 (2018).

Anaesthesia for free flap breast reconstruction. BJA Education, Volume 16, Issue 5, May 2016, Pages 162–166.

Paravertebral Analgesia with Levobupivacaine Increases Postoperative Flap Tissue Oxygen Tension after Immediate Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction Compared with Intravenous Opioid Analgesia. Anesthesiology February 2004, Vol. 100, 375–380.

Treatment of Post-Latissimus Dorsi Flap Breast Reconstruction Pain With Continuous Paravertebral Nerve Blocks: A Retrospective Review. Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Oct; 6(5): e39476.

Paravertebral blocks and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols in breast reconstructive surgery: patient selection and perspectives. J Pain Res. 2018;11:1567-1581.

Comparison of local and regional anesthesia modalities in breast surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 2021 Sep;72:110274.

Efficacy of regional anesthesia techniques for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing major oncologic breast surgeries: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can J Anaesth. 2022 Apr;69(4):527-549.

Efficacy of erector spinae plane block for analgesia in breast surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2021 Mar;76(3):404-413.

Erector Spinae Plane Block Similar to Paravertebral Block for Perioperative Pain Control in Breast Surgery: A Meta-Analysis Study. Pain Physician. 2021 May;24(3):203-213.

Erector Spinae Plane Block for Mastectomy and Breast Flap Reconstructive Surgery: A Three Case Series. Open Journal of Anesthesiology
Vol.10 No.01(2020), Article ID:97889,8 pages.

Tranexamic Acid vs. Amicar

** Updated June 2022**

Over the years, our hospital has been using Amicar… until there was a drug shortage.  With that drug shortage came a different drug called tranexamic acid.  We’ve been using it for awhile and I can’t seem to tell a difference in coagulation between the two drugs.  Let’s break down each one and also discuss cost-effectiveness.

Amicar

What is it?


From MedPage Today

Tranexamic Acid

What is it?

Tranexamic acid acts by reversibly blocking the lysine binding sites of plasminogen, thus preventing plasmin activation and, as a result, the lysis of polymerised fibrin.12 Tranexamic acid is frequently utilised to enhance haemostasis, particularly when fibrinolysis contributes to bleeding. In clinical practice, tranexamic acid has been used to treat menorrhagia, trauma-associated bleeding and to prevent perioperative bleeding associated with orthopaedic and cardiac surgery.13–16 Importantly, the use of tranexamic acid is not without adverse effects. Tranexamic acid has been associated with seizures,17 18 as well as concerns of possible increased thromboembolic events, including stroke which to date have not been demonstrated in randomised controlled trials.

Fibrinolysis is the mechanism of clot breakdown and involves a cascade of interactions between zymogens and enzymes that act in concert with clot formation to maintain blood flow.25 During extracorporeal circulation, such as cardiopulmonary bypass used in cardiac surgery, multiplex changes in haemostasis arise that include accelerated thrombin generation, platelet dysfunction and enhanced fibrinolysis.26 Tranexamic acid inhibits fibrinolysis, a putative mechanism of bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass, by forming a reversible complex with plasminogen.

Dosing:

  • Ortho/Spine
  • OB
  • Trauma

Currently at our hospital (June 2022):

TXA DOSING AND ADMINISTRATION OVERVIEW

How supplied from PharmacyTXA 1000mg/10mL vials Will not provide premade bags like with Amicar; Amicar is a more complex mixture than TXA Will take feedback on this after go-live and reassess
Where it will be supplied from PharmacyPOR-SUR1 Omnicell (in HeartCore Room)   Perfusion Tray (will replace aminocaproic acid vials 6/7)  
Recommended Dosing (see below for evidence)~20 mg/kg total dose Can give as: 20 mg/kg x 1, OR 10 mg/kg x 1, followed by 1-2 mg/kg/h*   Perfusion may also prime bypass solution with 2 mg/kg x 1*
Preparation & AdministrationIV push straight drug (1000mg/10mL) from vial   AND/OR   Mix vial of 1000mg/10mL TXA with 250mL NS for continuous infusion*

TXA & Amicar ADRs

  • Seizure risk may be increased also by duration of prolonged open-chamber surgery based on findings from Zuffery, et al. Anesthesiology 2021.
  • Per OR pharmacist at Scripps Mercy, they have not seen an increased incidence of seizures in their patient-population (anecdotally)

DOSING EVIDENCE

There are a number of dosing strategies in the literature. What I recommend for maximal safety and efficacy is taken from Zuffery, et al. Anesthesiology 2021 meta-analysis and is practiced at Scripps Mercy.

  • ~ 20 mg/kg total dose recommended in this meta-analysis.
  • Two dosing strategies they report that were as effective as high-dose but with lower seizure risk than high dose:

Is your workplace hazardous to your health??

I found myself on the wrong side of the ether screen earlier this year, having surgery on my left hand to release Dupuytren’s contracture, a genetic gift from my father and (maybe) generations of our Viking forebears. Wondering how long it will take to heal – and when I’ll get some (any?) grip strength back […]

Is your workplace hazardous to your health??

Intraperitoneal Chloroprocaine

20-something year old primip came today with preeclampsia and was deemed a c/s candidate for her 26 week baby. She was 5’8″, 165lb and had no prior issue with previous surgeries. She was started on magnesium preop. The mag was held intraoperatively and would resume postoperatively. Pt was in sitting position for her spinal, which was placed at L4-5. Good clear CSF return. 0.75% bupi dosed at 13.5 mg with intrathecal fentanyl 15mcg and intrathecal morphine 0.2mg. BP decreased from 150s to 130s, which was appropriate. Patient stated she had increased tingling and decreased mobility in her legs. All symptoms and signs appropriate with her spinal. Patient passed the Allis clamp test prior to incision. She was quite anxious: propofol was given IV for anxiolysis. Patient was adamant about breastfeeding/pumping for her baby. No complications with delivery. Uterus was externalized and patient was sensitive to pressure and tugging/manipulation. IV fenatnyl and IV morphine were given along with IV propofol. When uterus was internalized, patient felt more pressure that seemed unbearable. More IV pain meds were given. Suggestion was made for intraperitoneal chloroprocaine. Patient able to tolerate fascial closure as well as staple skin closure.

Intraperitoneal chloroprocaine

Chloroprocaine. StatPearls.

Intraperitoneal chloroprocaine is a useful adjunct to neuraxial block during cesarean delivery: a case series. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2018 Aug;35:33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2018.01.007. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Chloroprocaine Lavage to Improve Outcomes Related to Operative Cesarean Delivery (CLOR-PRO). Clinicaltrials.gov. 2018 ongoing.

Pain Control During Cesarean Delivery. Anesthesia Experts. Jan 2020.

From Essential Clinical Anesthesia: January 2012. Chapter 47

Failed epidural

Mechanisms and management of an incomplete epidural block for cesarean section. Anesthesiology Clinics. REVIEW ARTICLE| VOLUME 21, ISSUE 1, P39-57, MARCH 01, 2003

Everyone is a “doctor” these days

I came across an article from ASA Monitor: August 2021: Volume 85, Issue 8 from anesthesiologist Steve Shafer. I really resonated with what he said.

‘Hello. I Am Steve Shafer, Your Anesthesiologist’

Key points:

  • Everyone has a role within their expertise. We can all work together as a team.
  • “Doctor” should be reserved for physicians who have earned that title and clinically trained as one.
  • Health care providers have a duty to honestly represent their roles to patients. Because “doctor” unambiguously means “physician” to patients, only physicians should introduce themselves to patients as “doctor.” Because “anesthesiologist” implies “physician,” only residency-trained physicians should adopt the term “anesthesiologist.”

Dexmedetomidine

From DrugStoreNews

What is dexmedetomidine?

Current role of dexmedetomidine in clinical anesthesia and intensive care. Anesth Essays Res. 2011 Jul-Dec; 5(2): 128–133.

Dexmedetomidine: a novel sedative-analgesic agent. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 Jan; 14(1): 13–21.

Resources:

Perioperative Dexmedetomidine Improves Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery. Circulation. 2013;127:1576–1584.

Dexmedetomidine sedation reduces atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery compared to propofol: a randomized controlled trial. Critical Care volume 20, Article number: 298 (2016).

The effect of dexmedetomidine on outcomes of cardiac surgery in elderly patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016 Dec; 30(6): 1502–1508.

Prevalence of Delirium with Dexmedetomidine Compared with Morphine Based Therapy after Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial (DEXmedetomidine COmpared to Morphine-DEXCOM Study). Anesthesiology 11 2009, Vol.111, 1075-1084.

Effects of Perioperative Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Mortality and Morbidity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clinical Therapeutics/Volume 41, Number 1, 2019.

Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen vs Placebo Combined With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Delirium Among Older Patients Following Cardiac SurgeryThe DEXACET Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321(7):686-696.

Dexmedetomidine for reduction of atrial fibrillation and delirium after cardiac surgery (DECADE): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. VOLUME 396, ISSUE 10245, P177-185, JULY 18, 2020.

Role of dexmedetomidine infusion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The Cardiothoracic Surgeon volume 28, Article number: 4 (2020).

Dexmedetomidine as an Option for Opioid Refractory Pain in the Hospice Setting. J Palliat Med. 2019 Nov;22(11):1478-1481.


Dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in regional anesthesia

The comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine, fentanyl and esmolol on prevention of hemodynamic response to intubation

Regional Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgery

Gathering data for Cardiac ERAS program for our hospital as well as the SCA. This page will be continuously updated as I find more information.

Resources:



What I’m using these days:

  • August 2020: None as we do not have programmable intermittent bolus pumps for regional.

Gabapentinoids

With an opioid crisis at its peak, physicians need to be more cognizant of the various pain modalities available to patients. Gabapentinoids are one of the many non-opioid options to help with acute and chronic pain.

What are gabapentinoids?

Wikipedia

Analgesic mechanisms of gabapentinoids and effects in experimental pain models: a narrative review. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Volume 120, Issue 6, June 2018, Pages 1315-1334.

AAFP.org

FDA

ACPHospitalist.org

Resources:

Non-opioid IV adjuvants in the perioperative period: pharmacological and clinical aspects of ketamine and gabapentinoids. Pharmacol Res. 2012 Apr;65(4):411-29.

Systemic analgesia and co-analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2006;57(2):113-20.

A comparison of gabapentin and ketamine in acute and chronic pain after hysterectomy. Anesth Analg. 2009 Nov;109(5):1645-50.

Perioperative gabapentin reduces 24 h opioid consumption and improves in-hospital rehabilitation but not post-discharge outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with peripheral nerve block. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Nov;113(5):855-64.

From BJA Anaesth 2914 Nov. Fig 2.

Post‐operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs , glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations: a topical review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014 Nov;58(10):1165-81.

What our patients are getting:

  • July 2020
    • Cardiac pre-op: Lyrica 150mg PO

Cardiac myxoma

Myxoma is the most common primary benign cardiac tumor, which could lead to some fatal complications because of its strategic position. Although any age can be affected, it predominates in the age group of 30-60 years of age with more than 75% of the affected being women. The occurrence of myxomas in left and right atrium are 75% and 20% respectively.The majority of myxomas present with systemic emboli, fever and/or weight loss, or intracardiac obstruction to blood flow.1 A ‘tumor plop’ is a sound that typically occurs during early diastole and is believed to be caused by motion of the tumor striking the wall of the endocardium. The treatment is surgical excision and key aims of anesthesia care include constant monitoring of systemic blood pressure, adequate IV fluids, and judicious use of vasoactive medications to prevent a fall in systemic vascular resistance.3

Preop

  • A-line/CVP
  • Assess patient symptomatology: SOB, chest pain, changes in pulse pressure/CVP with positioning, heart sounds
  • Adequate PIV access
  • Vasopressors to help with SVR and heart rate control – mass can act as stenotic valve

Intraop

  • Induction: maintain SVR and consider slowing heart rate if mass blocking valves

Postop

2D TEE: X-plane
2D TEE: color flow through mitral valve
2D TEE: LA myxoma
2D TEE: LA myxoma w color
3D TEE: LA myxoma
From OpenAnaesthesia
2D TEE: measurement of stalk
Resected myxoma

References:

Surgical approach

Cardiac myxomas: 24 years of experience in 49 patients. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 22 (2002) 971–977.

Anesthesia management

Hemodynamic management of a patient with a huge right atrium myxoma during thoracic vertebral surgery: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Sep; 97(39): e12543.

Anesthetic Management of a Patient With a Giant Right Atrial Myxoma. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016 Mar;20(1):104-9.

Anesthetic management of a patient with asymptomatic atrial myxoma for hernia repair. Anaesth Pain & Intensive Care 2016;20(2):246-248

Giant Left Atrial Myxoma Obstructing Mitral Valve Bloodflow. Anesthesiology 7 2019, Vol.131, 151-152.

Anesthetic Management of a Voluminous Left Atrial Myxoma Resection in a 19 Weeks Pregnant with Atypical Clinical Presentation. Case Reports in Anesthesiology, Volume 2019, Article ID 4181502, 6 pages.

Large myxoma causing cardiac arrest during surgery. A Clinical Reports volume 1, Article number: 24 (2015).

Atrial myxomas causing severe left and right ventricular dysfunction. Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia. Case Report: Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 450-452.

Intraoperative Diagnosis of Left Atrial Myxoma. Anesthesia & Analgesia: January 1995 – Volume 80 – Issue 1 – p 183-184

Anesthetic experiences of myxoma removal surgery in two patients with Carney complex -A report of two cases-. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2011 Dec; 61(6): 528–532.

Echocardiography

Virtual TEE: Cardiac Myxoma

Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography assessment of right atrial myxoma resulting in a change of the surgical plan. Ann Card Anaesth 2014;17:306-8.

Continuous Regional Anesthesia Catheters

We’re setting up continuous regional anesthesia catheters in our hospital. It hasn’t been easy, but I’ve learned a lot along the way.

From Essentials of Pain Medicine (Fourth Edition)
2018, Pages 135-140.e2

Update on Continuous peripheral nerve block techniques


Continue reading “Continuous Regional Anesthesia Catheters”